Association Between Socio-Demographic Background
and Self-Esteem of University Students
Muhammad Ahsan ul Haq
Published online: 18 February 2016
Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016
Abstract The purpose of this study was to scrutinize self-esteem of university students
and explore association of self-esteem with academic achievement, gender and other
factors. A sample of 346 students was selected from Punjab University, Lahore Pakistan.
Rosenberg self-esteem scale with demographic variables was used for data collection.
Besides descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and t test were used for analysing
the data. Signiﬁcant gender difference was observed, self-esteem was signiﬁcantly higher
in males than females. Logistic regression indicates that age, medium of instruction, family
income, student monthly expenditures, GPA and area of residence has direct effect on self-
esteem; while number of siblings showed an inverse effect.
Keywords University students Á Self-esteem Á Gender Á t test Á Binary logistic regression
In psychology, the term self-esteem is a strong discussion subject Gebauer et al. . Self-
esteem reveals individual’s overall emotional assessment of own worth. In easy words, we
can say this; it is a judgment about oneself as well as an attitude towards the self. Self-
esteem is also known as the assessment aspect of the self which contains discouragement
and prides, feelings of worthlessness. In the 1960s, Morris Rosenberg  and social
education philosophers deﬁned that self-esteem as a worthiness or personal worth. In 1969
Nathaniel deﬁne the concept of Self-Esteem as ‘‘the experience of being component to
cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness.’’ We have a positive
vision for ourselves if we have a positive observation about yourself it is high self-esteem.
We always think that we have a respectable value; life style is more productive, exist in
& Muhammad Ahsan ul Haq
College of Statistical & Actuarial Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Psychiatr Q (2016) 87:755–762