1022-7954/04/4003- © 2004
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2004, pp. 282–287. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2004, pp. 366–371.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Yermishina, Kremenevskaja, Gukasian.
Production of doubled haploids allows breeders to
obtain homozygous strains within the lifespan of one
generation, which considerably reduces the time of
obtaining new cultivars. The anther culture method is
the most effective for obtaining doubled haploids,
because every anther contains many microspores, each
of which may give rise to a plant. Triticale is less
responsive to culturing of anthers compared to other
cereal plants [1, 2]; therefore, in vitro androgenesis of
this culture is not widely used in plant breeding.
The anther culture technique has been permanently
improved [1, 4–6] ever since ﬁrst haploid triticale
plants were obtained in an anther culture . Most
improvements concerned the composition of the cul-
ture medium (the use of maltose instead of sucrose,
addition of potato extract, optimization of the composi-
tion and concentration of growth factors, etc.) and the
variant of anther pretreatment and culturing [1, 7–11].
Almost all researchers dealing with anther cultures
agree that the genotype effect is the main limiting factor
of in vitro androgenesis. Many triticale genotypes, as
well as F
breeding combinations, are incapable
of morphogenesis in anther culture, which makes this
method too expensive to be used for routine purposes.
Therefore, one of the approaches proposed was to use
anther culture only with responsive genotypes [12–14].
On the other hand, the responsiveness of parental strain
to anther culturing affects the responsiveness of hybrid
combinations involving them [14–16]. Moreover, there
is evidence that F
hybrids have a higher androgenetic
capacity than the parental forms .
 proposed a program aimed pri-
marily at producing doubled haploids from as many
hybrid combinations as possible. They ranked the
parental strains of wheat and triticale according to
androgenetic capacity and used the best of them for
crossing. Each hybrid combination included at least
one parental strain that yielded at least one green hap-
loid plant per ear. Green haploid plants were obtained
from 88 out of 91 F
hybrid combinations of wheat and
from all of the 21 tested F
of triticale. However, note that nonadditive factors may
be prevalent in the genetic control of androgenetic
capacity in triticale , and the parameters of in vitro
androgenesis in hybrids considerably differ from those
in parental forms. Therefore, the approach based on the
estimation of combining ability with respect to the
characteristics of in vitro androgenesis seems to be
more reliable for the selection of parental forms.
We analyzed the combining abilities of cultivars and
strains of triticale and secalotriticum in order to develop
an optimal strategy of the selection of genotypes for
hybrid combinations with a high androgenetic capacity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material of the study was winter hexaploid cul-
tivars and strains of triticale and secalotriticum and
hybrids obtained by the method of polytester
analysis using six maternal forms and three testers.
Assessment of the Combining Ability
of Triticale and Secalotriticum
with Respect to in Vitro Androgenesis Characteristics
N. M. Yermishina, E. M. Kremenevskaja, and O. N. Gukasian
Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, 220072 Belarus;
fax: +(375-172); e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received February 12, 2003
—The combining ability of cultivars and strains of triticale and secalotriticum with respect to the char-
acteristics of androgenesis in anther culture has been analyzed (the 6
3 polytester design and parental forms).
Nonadditive effects of gene interaction have been found to be prevalent in the genetic control of the characters
analyzed in plants with the given genotypes. However, the characteristics of androgenesis were the highest in
those hybrid combinations in which genotypes with high values of general combining ability (GCA) and posi-
tive effects of speciﬁc combining ability (SCA) participated. A program of the analysis of combining ability in
triticale and secalotriticum is proposed. The program is aimed at detecting hybrid combinations with the best
androgenetic capacities and takes into account both additive and nonadditive effects.