Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and stor- age of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts. Keywords Water scarcity · Rain water harvesting · Heavy metals Introduction in aquatic ecosystems (Öztürk et al. 2009). Concentrations of heavy metals in rain water depend on different factors Rainwater is an important source of fresh water on earth. It such as vicinity of sources, the amount of precipitation and is the purest form of naturally occurring water. It is consid- direction of air masses (Koulousaris et al. 2009). ered, therefore, to be produced by a kind of natural distil- Chemical composition and concentration of heavy met- lation. However, it contains dissolved gases such as carbon als in atmospheric precipitation have been studied in many dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, fine regions such as: Central Ontario in Canada (Jeferies and particulate materials or aerosols, etc., from the atmosphere Snyder 1981), four sites in Bangladesh (Hadi et al. 1999), (Asthana and Asthana 2003).Industrial processes, fossil fuel Cartagena in Spain (Moreno-Grau et  al. 2002), Gulf of combustion, mining, waste incineration, motor vehicles and Iskenderun (Örnektekin and Cakmakli 2003), Knot in Japan other human activities emit large amounts of atmospheric (Itoh et al. 2006), Xanthi in Greece (Melidis et al. 2006), pollutants. One of the most important groups of the atmos- North-Eastern Mediterranean region (Özsoy et al. 2008), pheric pollutants is heavy metals. Heavy metals are toxic to India (Singh and Mondal 2008), northern Aegian Sea (Kou- living organisms and some of them such as lead and cad- lousaris et al. 2009), Opme in France (Bertrand et al. 2008) mium are toxic at low levels (Itoh et al. 2006; Kalantari and and in many other countries and regions. Atmospheric pol- Ghaffari 2008; Vinodhini and Narayanan 2009). lutants may be removed from the atmosphere in two ways: The origins of emission of some heavy metals such as Sn, one way is the rain out in condensation process within the Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Pb and Se are mostly anthropogenic and the clouds and the other way is the impaction with falling rain origins of the others are lithogenic such as Al, Mn and Fe drops and washout. (Jeferies and Snyder 1981). Wet and dry atmospheric deposi- Although the rain water removes the heavy metals and tions are the major pathway of accumulation of heavy metals other pollutants yet deposition of heavy metals in the form of rain would be harmful for the ecosystem. Therefore, it is mandatory to monitor and accurate determination of these * Purnima Sharma pollutants because some trace elements which are nutrients, Purnimasharma87@gmail.com can also acts as a toxin if they are present above permissible limits. A number of study have been conducted around the Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 67 Page 2 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 world for demonstration of heavy metal concentration in the from standard level and helps to know the effects on human rain water but there is no documented report about the con- health due to increase in pollution (Senthilnathan 2007). The centration of heavy metals in the atmospheric precipitation primary sources causative to the worsening of air quality in in the Lucknow City. urban areas are mainly vehicular traffic, industrial sources In the Lucknow city, the rainfall occurs mainly during the and power plants. Out of these three, the last two sources monsoon season which runs from July to September. For are stationary sources of pollutants, affecting air to a greater the evaluation of heavy metal concentration, the samples extent but in a limited area, while the vehicular traffic being were collected from different location in the city. For the a mobile source pollutes the atmosphere to a larger extent comparative study, water samples have been collected from without limitation. Vehicles are the prime source of air pol- two different dates first from first rainfall and in the second lution in urban areas and these air pollutants from vehicles rainfall. The six heavy metals i.e., zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), received more attention than ever before with the continu- cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) ous increase of vehicle demand world wide in recent dec- and lead (Pb) were analyzed in the samples. ades (USEPA 1991a, b; Kenneth 1994; Larsolov 1994; Jor- gensen 1996; Bradley et al. 1999; Singer and Harley 2000; Ye et al. 2000; Charron and Harrison 2003; Schifter et al. Study area 2003). Gases and particulate emissions from automobiles add air pollution to atmosphere drastically. Lucknow has Lucknow is one of the most populated cities of India with insufficient transport infrastructure. Vehicular traffic is the many distinctive characteristics. It is the capital of the state main source of particulate air pollution in Lucknow city. The of Uttar Pradesh, which is the highest populated state of the number of different categories of vehicles registered with country having a population of 166,197,921 people as per regional transport office (RTO) Lucknow is 14,24,478 as on the Census Data 2011. Lucknow being an urban agglomera- 31.03.2013 which is 8.35% higher over the last year (Source: tion with a population of over 1 million can rightly be clas- RTO, Lucknow, 2013a). sified as Lucknow Metropolitan area (Anonymous, Census According to the study carried out by Anonymous, Indian 2011) (Fig. 1). Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR) in the months of March–May, 2012 to see the status of air quality by monitor- Air quality of Lucknow city ing and assessment of some selected air pollutants, namely respirable particulate matter (RSPM or PM10), fine par - Air quality is a significant determinant of health. Ambi- ticulates (PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO ), nitrogen dioxide ent air quality is also known as air pollution index which (NO ), and trace metals—iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), chromium measures point to know the change in level of pollutants (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co) Fig. 1 Location map of study area Map of Uar Pradesh Showing Lucknow District Sitapur District BarabankiDistrict LUCKNOW CITY Map of Lucknow District Rae Bareli Unnao District Showing Lucknow City Area 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 3 of 14 67 level at 9 representative locations, categorized as residen- Rainfall statistics in the monsoon period of Lucknow tial (four), commercial (four) and industrial (one) areas in Lucknow city. Rainfall data collected from Indian Meteorological Depart- The results revealed the 24  h concentration of PM10 ment (IMD) for the last 7 years and for 2013 shows that in the range of 113.0– 396.2  µg/m with an average of the average rainfall trend throughout the monsoon period 231.9  µg/m . The corresponding 24-h values of PM2.5 (July–September), are 175, 187, 384, 217, 228, 226, 231 ranged between 59.8 and 175.4 µg/m with an average of and 148 mm for the year 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 89.3 µg/m . The average values of PM10 and PM2.5 irre- 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively (Table 1; Fig. 2) spective of locations were found to be above the permis- sible limit (PM10 = 100  µg/m and PM2.5 = 60  µg/m ) 3 3 prescribed by MoEF. 24-h concentration of SO and NOx were found in the range of 9.8–24.9 and 21.6–61.5  µg/ Collection of samples m with an average concentration of 17.5–37.3  µg/m , 3 3 respectively, and all the values were below the permissi- Gomati River divides the Lucknow city into two parts i.e., ble limits (80 µg/m ). The mean level of trace metals were Cis-Gomati and Trans-Gomati area. For the collection of found Fe = 1502.92, Ni = 14.00, Cr = 39.39, Pb = 34.45, rain water, we further divided the city area into five dif- Zn = 150.11, Mn = 113.34 and Co = 4.15 ng/m . ferent zones as follows. The study revealed that trace elements present in the atmosphere in different concentrations which might come down with the precipitation. Thus, the study evaluates the Zone 1 concentration of heavy metals in the rainfall water, which can be further used for potable or non-potable water source. Zone 1 is a mix up of residential and commercial areas situated in the Trans-Gomati area having some important government/public sector and private sector offices like the Reserve Bank of India, passport office, etc., are located in Table 1 Average rainfall trend in monsoon period (July–September) this area. In addition, the new premise of U.P. High Court- since 2006 to 2013 of Lucknow city (Anonymous, Hydromet Divi- Lucknow Bench is under construction in this area. The sion of India Meteorological Department, Lucknow 2013b) main localities in Zone 1 are Gomti Nagar, Indira Nagar, Year July August September Average Kamta, Chinhat, Faizabad Road, Rabindra Palli, Sanjay rainfall in Gandhi Puram, Maruti Puram and New Gulistan Colony. mm 2006 342 151.1 32.9 175 2007 246.7 197.1 118 187 Zone 2 2008 444.3 377.5 330.6 384 2009 166.1 256.5 229.9 217 Zone 2 is illustrated as semi-commercial areas situated in 2010 342.2 199.9 144.2 228 the Trans-Gomati area, consist localities of Aliganj, Vikas 2011 246.3 323.6 109.6 226 nagar, Mahangar, Daliganj, Triveni Nagar, Kalyanpur, 2012 288 210.1 194.9 231 Kursi Road, Engineering College. 2013 223.3 192.3 30.5 148 Fig. 2 Average rainfall trend in Monsoon period (July–Sep- tember) since 2006 to 2013 of Lucknow City (Anonymous, Hydromet Division of India Meteorological Department, Lucknow, 2013b) 2007 2011 2006 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 1 234567 8 Series1 175 187 384 217 228 226 231 148 1 3 Rainfall in mm 67 Page 4 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Zone 3 Zone 5 Zone 3 is mainly demarcated as residential areas of Cis- Zone 5 is the hub of commercial areas of the city. This Gomati, constitutes the Chowk, Thakurganj, Rajajipuram, zone also termed as Central Lucknow as it constitutes the and localities near Hardoi Road. prime commercial areas of Hazratganj, Aminabad, Nishat- ganj, Dalibagh, and Kaiserbagh, New Hyderabad, and Mall Avenue. Zone 4 The rain water samples were collected from all the five zones (Fig.  3). Plastic buckets that have been previously Zone 4 constitutes the cantonment and industrial areas of washed and leached with 10% HNO and 1:1 HCl for 48 h Cis-Gomati. The localities near Kanpur road, LDA colony, were used to collect rainwater samples in an open place with Alambagh, Hindnagar, Sarojini nagar, and Telibagh exists a stand of about twenty feet above the ground. Then, this in this zone. water was stored into pre-distillated sampling water bot- tles. For the comparative study, water samples have been Fig. 3 Location of rainwater sample in Lucknow city plotted with the help of GPS 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 5 of 14 67 collected from two different dates first from first rainfall (5th Results July, 2012) and second after 3 days of interval (9th July, 2012) in the second rainfall. The results obtained from analysis of rainwater sample from The samples were preserved by acidifying and keeping different places of Lucknow city are given in Table  2. This them in refrigerator at low temperature. The heavy metals table shows the comparison between concentration of heavy were determined through atomic absorption spectrometer. metals between first and second rainwater. After the analysis of all heavy metals, the values are compared with the stand- ard range for drinking water described by the Anonymous, Measurement of trace elements World Health Organisation, 2006 (WHO) (Table 3). The present work focuses on exposure to the seven “heavy” Zinc (Zn) metals, namely—zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn),cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), as Zinc is a very common substance that occurs naturally. Many they are arguably the most important metal toxins from a foodstuffs contain certain concentrations of zinc. Drinking global perspective. water also contains certain amounts of zinc. It is very impor- tant and essential micronutrient for human health. It is a nec- Sample preparation essary element for physical and neurobiological growth of infants, children and adults. It also influences the activity of The water sample was digested to solubilise the solid matter various enzymes and hormones. According to WHO (World and to remove the organics by oxidation and volatilization. Health Organization), the recommended dietary dose of zinc The open digestion method was used for the digestion of for an adult male is 9.4 and 6.5 mg/day for female and the samples. permissible limit of zinc in water is not more than 5 mg/l. Both deficiency and excess amount of zinc causes various Open digestion method health-related problems in human beings. Zinc deficiency is characterized by growth retardation, loss of appetite, and Two hundred ml of water samples is taken in a 250 ml coni- impaired immune function. In more severe cases, zinc defi- cal flask, water sample is boiled over hot plate until the vol- ciency causes hair loss, diarrhoea, delayed sexual matura- ume reduced to half and then digested using diacid HN O tion, impotence, hypogonadism in males, and eye and skin (nitric acid) and HClO (perchloric acid) in a 5: 1 ratio by lesions. Zinc toxicity can occur in both acute and chronic adding 10 ml of concentrated acid mixture till the white forms. Acute adverse effects of high zinc intake include fume appears, the digested water samples are filtered and nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, diar- diluted to 50 ml with 0.1 N of HNO solution (Anonymous, rhoea, and headaches (anonymous, dietary reference intakes APHA 2005). for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, cop- per, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, Analysis vanadium, and zinc 2001). In first rainfall, water samples zinc was found in all sam- Analysis is performed by atomic absorption spectrometer ples, values ranges between 0.04 and 0.18 ppm. While in (AAS: Perkin Elmer Analyst 700). Atomic absorption spec- second rainfall, water samples the value of zinc slightly trometer is an analytical tool for determination of the pres- decreased than first rainwater values. The values range from ence and concentrations of trace amounts of metals in liquid 0.03 to 0.16 ppm. Although all water samples come under samples. It can determine more than 70 elements such as the permissible limit (3 ppm) described by World Health iron (Fe), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), calcium Organization standards for drinking water (WHO), yet this (Ca), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), nickel low to very low concentration of zinc can also adversely (Ni), etc. In atomic absorption spectrometer, light of a spe- affect the human health (Fig.  4). cific wavelength is passed through the atomic vapour of an element of interest, and measurement is made of the attenu- Lead (Pb) ation of the intensity of the light as a result of absorption. Lead is one of the most commonly used metals in the world and like many other metals, is rarely found in its elemental form; rather, it is found in a variety of compounds, com- plexes and alloys. It occurs naturally in the environment. However, most lead concentrations that are found in the 1 3 67 Page 6 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 1 3 Table 2 Concentration of different heavy metals of rainwater samples collected from different zones of Lucknow city during first and second rainfall (Lat latitude, Long longitude, Zn zinc, Pb lead, Cd cadmium, Cr chromium, Cu copper, Mn manganese, Co cobalt, ppm parts per million or mg/l, BDL below detection limit) S. no. Zone Name of Lat. in Long. in Zn Zn Pb Pb Cd Cd Cr Cr Cu Cu Mn Mn Co Co (ppm) the loca- decimal decimal (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I II tions II II II 1 Zone 1 Chinhat 26.8854 81.040 0.065 0.047 0.02 0.035 0.008 0.02 0.130 0.016 BDL 0.004 BDL BDL BDL BDL near Alla- habad bank 2 Matiyari 26.8734 81.031 0.096 0.086 0.04 0.048 0.007 0.01 0.107 0.014 0.001 0.001 BDL BDL 0.002 BDL Chauraha Chinhat 3 Sec-8 26.8777 81.005 0.119 0.051 0.03 0.064 0.017 0.08 0.206 0.031 BDL 0.006 BDL BDL BDL BDL Indirana- gar 4 Gomati 26.8498 81.002 0.097 0.093 0.04 0.065 0.007 0.07 0.144 0.009 BDL 0.012 0.01 0.022 BDL BDL Nagar 5 Zone 2 Engineer- 26.9111 80.944 0.151 0.123 0.03 0.042 0.01 0.01 0.124 0.016 BDL 0.007 0.02 BDL BDL BDL ing College Aliganj 6 Kursi Road 26.9058 80.955 0.114 0.108 0.03 0.057 0.008 0.04 0.143 BDL BDL 0.012 BDL 0.022 BDL BDL near Sabji Mnadi 7 Kalyanpur 26.9037 80.965 0.118 0.110 0.03 0.054 0.014 0.06 0.106 0.014 BDL 0.014 BDL BDL BDL BDL 8 Vikas 26.8974 80.960 0.093 0.091 0.04 0.033 0.013 0.03 0.134 BDL BDL 0.005 BDL BDL BDL BDL Nagar- Sector 3 9 Near 26.8943 80.944 0.064 0.061 0.03 0.036 0.008 0.02 0.086 0.001 BDL 0.002 BDL 0.003 BDL BDL Purania Crossing 10 Triveni 26.8866 80.931 0.167 0.102 0.08 0.067 0.023 0.06 0.024 0.018 0.001 0.007 BDL BDL BDL BDL Nagar 11 CSIR 26.8856 80.938 0.188 0.161 0.03 0.043 0.022 0.04 0.132 0.019 BDL 0.008 0.01 BDL BDL BDL aliganj 12 Mandir 26.8816 80.950 0.093 0.057 0.03 0.076 0.012 0.07 0.149 0.043 BDL 0.002 BDL BDL BDL BDL marg Mahan- agr 13 Daliganj 26.8731 80.922 0.052 0.044 0.02 0.033 0.011 0.04 0.168 BDL 0.026 0.006 BDL BDL BDL BDL 14 Zone 3 Thakurganj 26.8701 80.891 0.134 0.087 0.02 0.046 0.013 0.04 0.120 0.014 BDL 0.019 0.01 BDL BDL BDL 15 Rajaji 26.8470 80.878 0.041 0.030 0.02 0.032 0.002 0.05 0.168 0.003 BDL 0.012 BDL BDL BDL BDL puram E-Block Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 7 of 14 67 1 3 Table 2 (continued) S. no. Zone Name of Lat. in Long. in Zn Zn Pb Pb Cd Cd Cr Cr Cu Cu Mn Mn Co Co (ppm) the loca- decimal decimal (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I II tions II II II 16 Rajaji 26.8389 80.887 0.121 0.074 0.02 0.083 0.015 0.06 0.118 0.023 BDL 0.018 BDL BDL BDL BDL puram B-Block 17 Zone 4 Bhola 26.8054 80.890 0.085 0.057 0.03 0.092 0.004 0.07 0.027 0.026 BDL 0.013 BDL BDL BDL BDL Khera Kanpur road 18 Power 26.7864 80.908 0.058 0.050 0.02 0.083 0.003 0.05 0.168 0.027 BDL 0.010 BDL BDL BDL BDL house, LDA colony 19 Hindnagar 26.7813 80.898 0.121 0.113 0.04 0.065 0.022 0.01 0.138 0.023 BDL 0.012 BDL BDL BDL BDL LDA Colony 20 Subash 26.7857 80.942 0.099 0.089 0.04 0.084 0.001 0.06 0.057 0.016 BDL 0.015 0.01 BDL BDL BDL Nagar, Telibagh 21 Ghosiyana 26.7881 80.959 0.134 0.109 0.02 0.088 0.011 0.05 0.107 0.021 BDL 0.014 BDL BDL BDL BDL Telibagh 22 Zone 5 IT crossing 26.8718 80.940 0.17 0.152 0.04 0.046 0.019 0.05 0.136 0.028 0.003 0.003 BDL BDL BDL BDL 23 SCERT, 26.8652 80.955 0.097 0.095 0.04 0.057 0.005 0.04 0.102 0.02 BDL 0.015 BDL BDL BDL BDL Nishat- ganj 24 Dalibagh 26.8504 80.960 0.097 0.052 0.06 0.077 0.005 0.06 0.123 0.028 BDL 0.007 BDL BDL BDL BDL 25 Ganesh- 26.8415 80.924 0.099 0.091 0.03 0.141 0.023 0.05 0.111 0.026 BDL 0.014 BDL 0.026 BDL BDL ganj, Amin- abad 67 Page 8 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Table 3 Standards of permissible limits of various parameters of rain- diminished learning abilities of children and behavioural dis- water (Anonymous, WHO 2006) ruptions of children, such as aggression, impulsive behav- iour and hyperactivity. Lead can enter a foetus through the Heavy metals WHO standards placenta of the mother. Because of these issues, it can cause Zinc (ppm) 3 serious damage to the nervous system and the brains of Lead (ppm) 0.01 unborn children (www.lennt ech.com). Cadmium (ppm) 0.003 In the water sample of first rainfall, Lead was found in all Chromium (ppm) 0.05 samples. The values range from 0.017 to 0.078 ppm. Com- Manganese (ppm) 0.5 paratively, in second rainfall water samples, the value of Copper (ppm) 2.0 lead slightly increased than first rainwater values. The values Cobalt (ppm) 0.0002 range between 0.03 and 0.14 ppm. All the samples show the values more than a permissible limit (0.01 ppm) define by WHO, which can be harmful for human health (Fig. 5). environment are a result of human activities. Due to the application of lead in gasoline, an unnatural lead cycle has Cadmium (Cd) taken place. In automobile engines, lead is burned, so that lead salts (chlorides, bromides, oxides) originate. These lead A limited concentration of cadmium is found in water bod- salts enter the environment through exhausts of automobiles. ies naturally through weathering of rocks and the rest of The larger particles will drop to the ground immediately the cadmium is released through human activities, such as and pollute soils or surface waters, the smaller particles will manufacturing plants and industries. Another important travel long distances through air and remain in the atmos- source of cadmium emission is during the production of phere. Part of this lead will fall back on earth when it is artificial phosphate fertilizers. Part of the cadmium ends up raining. Beside this, lead enters in drinking water primarily in the soil after the fertilizer is applied on farmland and as a result of corrosion or the wearing away of materials that the rest of the cadmium ends up in surface waters due to are in the water supply system and household plumbing. waste from fertilizer production plants (www.lenntec h.com). These materials can include lead-based solder, brass- and It is a by-product of zinc production plant and one of the chrome-plated faucets. most toxic elements to which man can be exposed through Lead fulfils no essential function in the human body; it inhalation, contaminated food and water. Once absorbed, can prove to be a serious health hazard if taken through Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it gets food, air or water. It can cause several unwanted effects, such accumulated for life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, as disruption of the biosynthesis of haemoglobin and anae- especially to the proximal tubular cells which is the main site mia, a rise in blood pressure, kidney damage, miscarriages for accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, and subtle abortions, disruption of nervous systems, brain either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result damage, declined fertility of men through sperm damage, of renal dysfunction (Bertrand et al. 2008). Fig. 4 Contour map of zinc values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and second(II) rainfall 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 9 of 14 67 Fig. 5 Contour Map of lead values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) and second (II) rainfall In the water sample of first rainfall, Cadmium was found be found in groundwater and surface water in considerable in all samples, value ranges between 0.001 and 0.022 ppm. concentrations. The concentration increases due to discharge Comparatively, in second rainfall water samples, the value of waste water into the surface water bodies and over ground of cadmium shows slight enhancement than first rainwater through various industries. The estimated safe and adequate values. The value varying from 0.07 to 0.01 ppm. According daily dietary intake range for chromium varies from 50 to to WHO specification, all the water samples show a higher 200 micrograms (Anonymous, National Research Council, concentration beyond the permissible limit (0.003 ppm). Food and Nutrition Board, Recommended Dietary Allow- This value can be harmful for human health (Fig. 6). ances, 1989). Among the two form of chromium, the triva- lent form is non-toxic but hexavalent form is very toxic for Chromium (Cr) human health. Trivalent chromium is an essential trace ele- ment for humans. Together with insulin, it removes glucose Chromium compounds are present in water samples only from blood, and it also plays a vital role in fat metabolism. in trace amounts. Chromium is found in two forms either Chromium deficits may enhance diabetes symptoms. Chro- in anionic trivalent or hexavalent. Chromium has a large mium can also be found in RNA. influence upon drinking water quality. It cannot normally Fig. 6 Contour map of cadmium values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and second(II) rainfall 1 3 67 Page 10 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Trivalent chromium (III) toxicity is unlikely at least when functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper it is taken up through food and drinking water. It may even growth, development and maintenance of bone, connective improve health and cure neuropathy and encephalopathy. tissue, brain, heart and many other body organs. Copper is Hexavalent chromium (VI) is known for its negative health involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and environmental impact, and its extreme toxicity. It causes and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and allergic and asthmatic reactions, is carcinogenic and is 1000 glucose, release of life sustaining proteins and enzymes. times as toxic as trivalent chromium. Health effects related These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regu- to hexavalent chromium exposure include diarrhoea, stom- late nerve transmission, blood clotting and oxygen trans- ach and intestinal bleedings, cramps, and liver and kidney port. However, exposure to higher doses can be harmful. damage. Hexavalent chromium is mutagenic. Toxic effects Long-term exposure to copper dust can irritate our nose, may be passed on to children through the placenta (www. mouth and eyes, and causes headaches, dizziness, nausea, lennt ech.com). and diarrhoea (Anonymous, Agency for Toxic Substances In the water sample of first rainfall, chromium was found and Disease Registry, 2004). in all samples with the value ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 ppm. In the water sample of first rainfall, copper was found only Comparatively, in second rainfall water samples, the chro- in 4 samples out of 25 samples, values range between 0.0006 mium was found in 22 samples out of 25 samples. The value and 0.0268 ppm. Comparatively, in second rainfall water ranges between 0.0009 and 0.04 ppm. It indicates that the samples, the copper was found in all samples. It is observed concentration of chromium in first rainfall water, except one that, the value of copper has increased than first rainwater sample, is high than permissible limit defined by WHO, that values. The values range from 0.0008 to 0.0194 ppm. This values can be harmful for human health. While the second result shows that all the values come under prescribed stand- rainfall values come under the permissible limit (Fig. 7). ards by WHO, but the values are too low, therefore, all the samples are deficient in copper, which can be harmful for Copper (Cu) human health (Fig. 8). Copper is a very common substance that occurs naturally Manganese (Mn) in the environment and spreads through the environment in a natural way. On account of human activities such as dis- Manganese compounds exist naturally in the environment posal of waste water that is contaminated with copper to the as solid compounds in the soil and as dissolved particles water bodies such as ponds, bawori, canals, etc. there would in the water. Humans enhance manganese concentrations be increased concentration of copper. Although copper is in the air by industrial activities and through burning fossil a toxic heavy metal, yet it is essential for good health. The fuels. Manganese that derives from human sources can also recommended daily dose of copper is 1.5–2.5 mg per day enter surface water, groundwater and sewage water. Man- by WHO. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins ganese is an essential nutrient involved in the formation of and metallo-enzymes which perform essential metabolic bone besides its active role in amino acid, cholesterol, and Fig. 7 Contour Map of chromium values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) and second (II) rainfall 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 11 of 14 67 Fig. 8 Contour map of copper values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and second(II) rainfall carbohydrate metabolism. The recommended daily intake In the water sample of first rainfall, manganese was found dose of manganese is 5 mg/day. The deficiency of manga- only in 6 samples out of 25 samples. The concentration nese can also cause adverse health effects such as skin prob- varies from 0.001 to 0.02 ppm. Comparatively, in second lems, changes of hair colour, glucose intolerance, neurologi- rainfall water samples, the manganese was found in only cal symptoms, etc. four samples. It is observed that the value of manganese has On the other hand, the overdose of manganese severely slightly increased than first rainwater values. The concen- affects the respiratory tract and brain. Symptoms of manga- tration ranges between 0.003 and 0.025 ppm. According to nese poisoning are hallucinations, forgetfulness and nerve WHO specification, all the water samples show the concen - damage. Manganese can also cause Parkinson, lung embo- tration below permissible limit (0.5 ppm). The result shows lism and bronchitis. When men are exposed to manganese that there is deficiency of manganese in the samples, which for a longer period of time they may become impotent. A can be harmful for human health (Fig. 9). syndrome that is caused by Manganese has symptoms such as schizophrenia, dullness, weak muscles, headaches and insomnia (www.lennt ech.com). Fig. 9 Contour Map of manganese values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) and second (II) rainfall 1 3 67 Page 12 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Fig. 10 Contour map of cobalt values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and animals to average levels of cobalt normally found in Cobalt (Co) the environment is not harmful. When too much cobalt is taken into body, however, harmful health effects can occur. Cobalt may enter the environment from both natural Serious effects on the lungs, including asthma, pneumo- sources and human activities. Cobalt occurs naturally in nia and wheezing have been found in people exposed to soil, rock, air, water, plants, and animals. It may enter air 0.005 mg/m . Nonradioactive cobalt has not been found to and water, and settle on land from windblown dust, seawa- cause cancer in humans or in animals following exposure ter spray, volcanic eruptions and forest fires and may addi- in the food or water. Cancer has been shown to occur in tionally get into surface water from runoff and leaching animals who breathed cobalt or when cobalt was placed when rainwater washes through soil and rock containing directly into the muscle or under the skin (Anonymous, cobalt. Cobalt has both beneficial and harmful effects on Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004). human health. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it In the water sample of first rainfall, cobalt was found only is part of vitamin B which is essential to maintain human in 1 sample out of 25 samples, value is 0.02 ppm, which is health. Cobalt (0.16–1.0 mg/kg of body weight) has also beyond the permissible limit (0.0002 ppm). Comparatively, been used as a treatment for anaemia (less than normal in second rainfall water, none of the samples show the cobalt number of red blood cells), including in pregnant women concentration (Fig. 10). because it causes red blood cells to be produced. Cobalt also increases red blood cell production in healthy people, but only at very high exposure levels. Exposure of humans 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 13 of 14 67 Table 4 Mean values of S. no. Parameters Mean values of first rainwa- Mean values of second rain- Standard different heavy metals of ter (5th July, 2012) water (9th July, 2012) values rainwater samples collected (ppm) from five zones of Lucknow city (ppm parts per million or mg/l, 1 Zinc 0.122 0.085 3 BDL below detection limit) 2 Lead 0.033 0.062 0.01 3 Cadmium 0.011 0.046 0.003 4 Chromium 0.121 0.017 0.05 5 Copper 0.001 0.01 2.0 6 Cobalt 0.0001 BDL 0.0002 7 Manganese 0.002 0.003 0.5 Conclusions References Anonymous (2005) APHA, 19th edition, American Public Health The present study reveals the concentration of heavy met- Association AWWA, Water Pollution Control Federation, New als in the rainwater sample of the Lucknow city. The mean York values of different parameters are generally within the per - Anonymous (1989) National Research Council, Food and Nutrition missible limits (Table 4). Board, Recommended Dietary Allowances Anonymous (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin a, vitamin The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first k, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead Anonymous (2004) Agency for toxic substances and disease registry were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These Anonymous (2006) World health organization report, 2006. http://water .epa.gov/actio n/advis or ies /dr ink ing/uploa d/2009_04_27_cr ite heavy metals show the concentration above the permissi- ria_drink ing_dwsta ndard s.pdf ble limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse Anonymous (2011) Census of India. http://www .censu s2011 .co.in/ health impacts. However, some parameters like zinc, copper, census/city/127 lucknow.html cobalt and manganese are present in very low concentra- Anonymous (2012) Indian institute of Toxicology Research (IITR) March–May, 2012 Report, Assessment of Environmental Status tions, which can also create health problems as these heavy of Lucknow City, Lucknow metals are essential for the proper development and metabo- Anonymous (2013a) Regional Transport Office (RTO), Lucknow, lism of the human body. Report It is, therefore, concluded that the rain water can be an Anonymous (2013b) Hydromet division of India Meteorological Department (IMD) Lucknow. http://www.world weath eronl ine. important natural resource of fresh water, but as the result com/weat h er ave r ag es /India /10175 84/L uckn ow-City/1035537/ reveals that some parameters deviates from the standards info.aspx for drinking water. Therefore, it is recommended to treat the Asthana DK, Asthana M (2003) Environment: problems and solutions, rainwater before using it for potable purposes. Whether it is atlas organization monograph, Calcutta, p 194 Bertrand G, Celle-Jeanton H, Laj P, Rangognio J, Chasot G (2008) removal of certain toxic elements or addition of essential Rainfall chemistry: long range transport versus below cloud scav- elements, both should be taken care of. enging. A two-year study at an inland station (opme, France). J Atmos Chem 60(3):235–271 Acknowledgements We are grateful to the Head of the Department Bradley KS, Stedman DH, Bishop GA (1999) A global inventory of of Geology, University of Lucknow for providing us the laboratory carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles, Chemosphere: facilities. Glob Change Sci 1:65–72 Charron A, Harrison RM (2003) Primary particle formation from vehi- Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Crea- cle emissions during exhaust dilution in the roadside atmosphere. tive Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creat iveco Atmos Environ 37(29):4109–4119 mmons.or g/licenses/b y/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribu- Hadi DA, Billah M, Biswas KF, Rafiqul I (1999) A Study on Chemical tion, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate Composition of Atmospheric Precipitation at Savar, Joydevpur, credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Tongi and Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Water Air Soil Pollut Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. 111(4):377–384 Itoh Y, Miura S, Yoshinaga S (2006) Atmospheric lead and cadmium deposition within forests in the Kanto district, Japan. J For. Res. 11(2):137–142 Jeferies DS, Snyder WR (1981) Atmospheric deposition of heavy metal in central Ontario. Water Air Soil Pollut 15(2):127–152 Jorgensen K (1996) Emissions from light and medium goods vehicle in Denmark. The Science of the Total Environment 189–190(28):131–138 1 3 67 Page 14 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Kalantari N, Ghaffari S (2008) Evaluation of toxicity of heavy metals Senthilnathan T (2007) Analysis of concentration of air pollutants and for Escherichia Coli growth. Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng air quality index levels in the ambient air in Chennai City, IE (I). 5(3):173–178 J EN 87:3–7 Kenneth TK (1994) On-road vehicle emissions: U S studies. The Sci- Singer BC, Harley RA (2000) A fuel-based inventory of motor vehicle ence of the Total Environment 146–147(23):209–215 exhaust emissions in the Los Angeles area during summer 1997. Koulousaris M, Aloupi M, Angelidis MO (2009) Total metal concen- Atmos Environ 34:1783–1795 tration in atmospheric precipitation from the Northern Agean Sea. Singh AK, Mondal GC (2008) Chemical characterization of wet pre- Water Air Soil Pollut 201(4):389–403 cipitation events and deposition of pollutants in coal minig region. Larsolov O (1994) Motor vehicle air pollution control in Sweden. The India. J. Atmos Chem. 59(1):1–23 Science of the Total Environment 146–147(23):27–34 USEPA (1991a) United States environmental protection agency, draft Melidis P, Akratos CS, Tsihrintzis VA, Trikilidou E (2006) Charac- 1991 transportation air quality planning guidelines. USEPA terization of Rain and Roof Drainage Water Quality in Xanthi. USEPA (1991b) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Greece. Environ Monit Assess 127(1):15–27 National Air Policy and Emissions Trends Report, USEPA Moreno-Grau S, Cascales-Pujalte JA, MartÍnez-GarcÍa MJ, Ango- Vinodhini R, Narayanan M (2009) The impact of toxic heavy metals on sto JM, Moreno J, Bayo J, GarcÍa-Sá nchez A, Moreno-Clavel J the hematological parameters in common crap (Cyprinus Carpio (2002) Relationships between Levels of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, L.). Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 6(1):23–28. Web-source: www. and Copper in Soil and Settleable Particulate Matter in Cartagena lennt ech.com (Spain). Water Air Soil Pollut 137(4):365–383 Ye SH, Zhou W, Song J, Peng BC, Yuan D, Lu YM, Qi PP (2000) Tox- Örnektekin S, Cakmakli S (2003) Chemical composition and acidity of icity and health eûects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai. Atmos rain at the Gulf of Iskenderun, North-East Mediterranean. Water Environ 34(3):419–429 Air Soil Pollut (focus) 3(1):151–166 Özsoy T, Türker P, Örnektekin S (2008) Precipitation Chemistry as an Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to Indicator of Urban Air Quality in Mersin, North-Eastern Mediter- jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. ranean Region. Water Air Soil Pollut 189(1):69–83 Öztürk M, Özözen M, Minareci G, Minareci OE (2009) Determination of heavy metals in fish, water and sediments of Avsar dam lake in TURKEY. Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng. 6(2):73–80 Schifter I, Diaz L, Vera M, Guzman E, Lopez-Salinas E (2003) Impact of sulfurin-gasoline on motor vehicle emissions in the metropoli- tan area of Mexico City. Fuel 82(13):1605–1612 1 3 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Water Science Springer Journals

Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

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Earth Sciences; Hydrogeology; Water Industry/Water Technologies; Industrial and Production Engineering; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution; Nanotechnology; Private International Law, International & Foreign Law, Comparative Law
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Abstract

Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and stor- age of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts. Keywords Water scarcity · Rain water harvesting · Heavy metals Introduction in aquatic ecosystems (Öztürk et al. 2009). Concentrations of heavy metals in rain water depend on different factors Rainwater is an important source of fresh water on earth. It such as vicinity of sources, the amount of precipitation and is the purest form of naturally occurring water. It is consid- direction of air masses (Koulousaris et al. 2009). ered, therefore, to be produced by a kind of natural distil- Chemical composition and concentration of heavy met- lation. However, it contains dissolved gases such as carbon als in atmospheric precipitation have been studied in many dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, fine regions such as: Central Ontario in Canada (Jeferies and particulate materials or aerosols, etc., from the atmosphere Snyder 1981), four sites in Bangladesh (Hadi et al. 1999), (Asthana and Asthana 2003).Industrial processes, fossil fuel Cartagena in Spain (Moreno-Grau et  al. 2002), Gulf of combustion, mining, waste incineration, motor vehicles and Iskenderun (Örnektekin and Cakmakli 2003), Knot in Japan other human activities emit large amounts of atmospheric (Itoh et al. 2006), Xanthi in Greece (Melidis et al. 2006), pollutants. One of the most important groups of the atmos- North-Eastern Mediterranean region (Özsoy et al. 2008), pheric pollutants is heavy metals. Heavy metals are toxic to India (Singh and Mondal 2008), northern Aegian Sea (Kou- living organisms and some of them such as lead and cad- lousaris et al. 2009), Opme in France (Bertrand et al. 2008) mium are toxic at low levels (Itoh et al. 2006; Kalantari and and in many other countries and regions. Atmospheric pol- Ghaffari 2008; Vinodhini and Narayanan 2009). lutants may be removed from the atmosphere in two ways: The origins of emission of some heavy metals such as Sn, one way is the rain out in condensation process within the Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Pb and Se are mostly anthropogenic and the clouds and the other way is the impaction with falling rain origins of the others are lithogenic such as Al, Mn and Fe drops and washout. (Jeferies and Snyder 1981). Wet and dry atmospheric deposi- Although the rain water removes the heavy metals and tions are the major pathway of accumulation of heavy metals other pollutants yet deposition of heavy metals in the form of rain would be harmful for the ecosystem. Therefore, it is mandatory to monitor and accurate determination of these * Purnima Sharma pollutants because some trace elements which are nutrients, Purnimasharma87@gmail.com can also acts as a toxin if they are present above permissible limits. A number of study have been conducted around the Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 67 Page 2 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 world for demonstration of heavy metal concentration in the from standard level and helps to know the effects on human rain water but there is no documented report about the con- health due to increase in pollution (Senthilnathan 2007). The centration of heavy metals in the atmospheric precipitation primary sources causative to the worsening of air quality in in the Lucknow City. urban areas are mainly vehicular traffic, industrial sources In the Lucknow city, the rainfall occurs mainly during the and power plants. Out of these three, the last two sources monsoon season which runs from July to September. For are stationary sources of pollutants, affecting air to a greater the evaluation of heavy metal concentration, the samples extent but in a limited area, while the vehicular traffic being were collected from different location in the city. For the a mobile source pollutes the atmosphere to a larger extent comparative study, water samples have been collected from without limitation. Vehicles are the prime source of air pol- two different dates first from first rainfall and in the second lution in urban areas and these air pollutants from vehicles rainfall. The six heavy metals i.e., zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), received more attention than ever before with the continu- cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) ous increase of vehicle demand world wide in recent dec- and lead (Pb) were analyzed in the samples. ades (USEPA 1991a, b; Kenneth 1994; Larsolov 1994; Jor- gensen 1996; Bradley et al. 1999; Singer and Harley 2000; Ye et al. 2000; Charron and Harrison 2003; Schifter et al. Study area 2003). Gases and particulate emissions from automobiles add air pollution to atmosphere drastically. Lucknow has Lucknow is one of the most populated cities of India with insufficient transport infrastructure. Vehicular traffic is the many distinctive characteristics. It is the capital of the state main source of particulate air pollution in Lucknow city. The of Uttar Pradesh, which is the highest populated state of the number of different categories of vehicles registered with country having a population of 166,197,921 people as per regional transport office (RTO) Lucknow is 14,24,478 as on the Census Data 2011. Lucknow being an urban agglomera- 31.03.2013 which is 8.35% higher over the last year (Source: tion with a population of over 1 million can rightly be clas- RTO, Lucknow, 2013a). sified as Lucknow Metropolitan area (Anonymous, Census According to the study carried out by Anonymous, Indian 2011) (Fig. 1). Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR) in the months of March–May, 2012 to see the status of air quality by monitor- Air quality of Lucknow city ing and assessment of some selected air pollutants, namely respirable particulate matter (RSPM or PM10), fine par - Air quality is a significant determinant of health. Ambi- ticulates (PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO ), nitrogen dioxide ent air quality is also known as air pollution index which (NO ), and trace metals—iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), chromium measures point to know the change in level of pollutants (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co) Fig. 1 Location map of study area Map of Uar Pradesh Showing Lucknow District Sitapur District BarabankiDistrict LUCKNOW CITY Map of Lucknow District Rae Bareli Unnao District Showing Lucknow City Area 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 3 of 14 67 level at 9 representative locations, categorized as residen- Rainfall statistics in the monsoon period of Lucknow tial (four), commercial (four) and industrial (one) areas in Lucknow city. Rainfall data collected from Indian Meteorological Depart- The results revealed the 24  h concentration of PM10 ment (IMD) for the last 7 years and for 2013 shows that in the range of 113.0– 396.2  µg/m with an average of the average rainfall trend throughout the monsoon period 231.9  µg/m . The corresponding 24-h values of PM2.5 (July–September), are 175, 187, 384, 217, 228, 226, 231 ranged between 59.8 and 175.4 µg/m with an average of and 148 mm for the year 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 89.3 µg/m . The average values of PM10 and PM2.5 irre- 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively (Table 1; Fig. 2) spective of locations were found to be above the permis- sible limit (PM10 = 100  µg/m and PM2.5 = 60  µg/m ) 3 3 prescribed by MoEF. 24-h concentration of SO and NOx were found in the range of 9.8–24.9 and 21.6–61.5  µg/ Collection of samples m with an average concentration of 17.5–37.3  µg/m , 3 3 respectively, and all the values were below the permissi- Gomati River divides the Lucknow city into two parts i.e., ble limits (80 µg/m ). The mean level of trace metals were Cis-Gomati and Trans-Gomati area. For the collection of found Fe = 1502.92, Ni = 14.00, Cr = 39.39, Pb = 34.45, rain water, we further divided the city area into five dif- Zn = 150.11, Mn = 113.34 and Co = 4.15 ng/m . ferent zones as follows. The study revealed that trace elements present in the atmosphere in different concentrations which might come down with the precipitation. Thus, the study evaluates the Zone 1 concentration of heavy metals in the rainfall water, which can be further used for potable or non-potable water source. Zone 1 is a mix up of residential and commercial areas situated in the Trans-Gomati area having some important government/public sector and private sector offices like the Reserve Bank of India, passport office, etc., are located in Table 1 Average rainfall trend in monsoon period (July–September) this area. In addition, the new premise of U.P. High Court- since 2006 to 2013 of Lucknow city (Anonymous, Hydromet Divi- Lucknow Bench is under construction in this area. The sion of India Meteorological Department, Lucknow 2013b) main localities in Zone 1 are Gomti Nagar, Indira Nagar, Year July August September Average Kamta, Chinhat, Faizabad Road, Rabindra Palli, Sanjay rainfall in Gandhi Puram, Maruti Puram and New Gulistan Colony. mm 2006 342 151.1 32.9 175 2007 246.7 197.1 118 187 Zone 2 2008 444.3 377.5 330.6 384 2009 166.1 256.5 229.9 217 Zone 2 is illustrated as semi-commercial areas situated in 2010 342.2 199.9 144.2 228 the Trans-Gomati area, consist localities of Aliganj, Vikas 2011 246.3 323.6 109.6 226 nagar, Mahangar, Daliganj, Triveni Nagar, Kalyanpur, 2012 288 210.1 194.9 231 Kursi Road, Engineering College. 2013 223.3 192.3 30.5 148 Fig. 2 Average rainfall trend in Monsoon period (July–Sep- tember) since 2006 to 2013 of Lucknow City (Anonymous, Hydromet Division of India Meteorological Department, Lucknow, 2013b) 2007 2011 2006 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 1 234567 8 Series1 175 187 384 217 228 226 231 148 1 3 Rainfall in mm 67 Page 4 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Zone 3 Zone 5 Zone 3 is mainly demarcated as residential areas of Cis- Zone 5 is the hub of commercial areas of the city. This Gomati, constitutes the Chowk, Thakurganj, Rajajipuram, zone also termed as Central Lucknow as it constitutes the and localities near Hardoi Road. prime commercial areas of Hazratganj, Aminabad, Nishat- ganj, Dalibagh, and Kaiserbagh, New Hyderabad, and Mall Avenue. Zone 4 The rain water samples were collected from all the five zones (Fig.  3). Plastic buckets that have been previously Zone 4 constitutes the cantonment and industrial areas of washed and leached with 10% HNO and 1:1 HCl for 48 h Cis-Gomati. The localities near Kanpur road, LDA colony, were used to collect rainwater samples in an open place with Alambagh, Hindnagar, Sarojini nagar, and Telibagh exists a stand of about twenty feet above the ground. Then, this in this zone. water was stored into pre-distillated sampling water bot- tles. For the comparative study, water samples have been Fig. 3 Location of rainwater sample in Lucknow city plotted with the help of GPS 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 5 of 14 67 collected from two different dates first from first rainfall (5th Results July, 2012) and second after 3 days of interval (9th July, 2012) in the second rainfall. The results obtained from analysis of rainwater sample from The samples were preserved by acidifying and keeping different places of Lucknow city are given in Table  2. This them in refrigerator at low temperature. The heavy metals table shows the comparison between concentration of heavy were determined through atomic absorption spectrometer. metals between first and second rainwater. After the analysis of all heavy metals, the values are compared with the stand- ard range for drinking water described by the Anonymous, Measurement of trace elements World Health Organisation, 2006 (WHO) (Table 3). The present work focuses on exposure to the seven “heavy” Zinc (Zn) metals, namely—zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn),cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), as Zinc is a very common substance that occurs naturally. Many they are arguably the most important metal toxins from a foodstuffs contain certain concentrations of zinc. Drinking global perspective. water also contains certain amounts of zinc. It is very impor- tant and essential micronutrient for human health. It is a nec- Sample preparation essary element for physical and neurobiological growth of infants, children and adults. It also influences the activity of The water sample was digested to solubilise the solid matter various enzymes and hormones. According to WHO (World and to remove the organics by oxidation and volatilization. Health Organization), the recommended dietary dose of zinc The open digestion method was used for the digestion of for an adult male is 9.4 and 6.5 mg/day for female and the samples. permissible limit of zinc in water is not more than 5 mg/l. Both deficiency and excess amount of zinc causes various Open digestion method health-related problems in human beings. Zinc deficiency is characterized by growth retardation, loss of appetite, and Two hundred ml of water samples is taken in a 250 ml coni- impaired immune function. In more severe cases, zinc defi- cal flask, water sample is boiled over hot plate until the vol- ciency causes hair loss, diarrhoea, delayed sexual matura- ume reduced to half and then digested using diacid HN O tion, impotence, hypogonadism in males, and eye and skin (nitric acid) and HClO (perchloric acid) in a 5: 1 ratio by lesions. Zinc toxicity can occur in both acute and chronic adding 10 ml of concentrated acid mixture till the white forms. Acute adverse effects of high zinc intake include fume appears, the digested water samples are filtered and nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, diar- diluted to 50 ml with 0.1 N of HNO solution (Anonymous, rhoea, and headaches (anonymous, dietary reference intakes APHA 2005). for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, cop- per, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, Analysis vanadium, and zinc 2001). In first rainfall, water samples zinc was found in all sam- Analysis is performed by atomic absorption spectrometer ples, values ranges between 0.04 and 0.18 ppm. While in (AAS: Perkin Elmer Analyst 700). Atomic absorption spec- second rainfall, water samples the value of zinc slightly trometer is an analytical tool for determination of the pres- decreased than first rainwater values. The values range from ence and concentrations of trace amounts of metals in liquid 0.03 to 0.16 ppm. Although all water samples come under samples. It can determine more than 70 elements such as the permissible limit (3 ppm) described by World Health iron (Fe), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), calcium Organization standards for drinking water (WHO), yet this (Ca), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), nickel low to very low concentration of zinc can also adversely (Ni), etc. In atomic absorption spectrometer, light of a spe- affect the human health (Fig.  4). cific wavelength is passed through the atomic vapour of an element of interest, and measurement is made of the attenu- Lead (Pb) ation of the intensity of the light as a result of absorption. Lead is one of the most commonly used metals in the world and like many other metals, is rarely found in its elemental form; rather, it is found in a variety of compounds, com- plexes and alloys. It occurs naturally in the environment. However, most lead concentrations that are found in the 1 3 67 Page 6 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 1 3 Table 2 Concentration of different heavy metals of rainwater samples collected from different zones of Lucknow city during first and second rainfall (Lat latitude, Long longitude, Zn zinc, Pb lead, Cd cadmium, Cr chromium, Cu copper, Mn manganese, Co cobalt, ppm parts per million or mg/l, BDL below detection limit) S. no. Zone Name of Lat. in Long. in Zn Zn Pb Pb Cd Cd Cr Cr Cu Cu Mn Mn Co Co (ppm) the loca- decimal decimal (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I II tions II II II 1 Zone 1 Chinhat 26.8854 81.040 0.065 0.047 0.02 0.035 0.008 0.02 0.130 0.016 BDL 0.004 BDL BDL BDL BDL near Alla- habad bank 2 Matiyari 26.8734 81.031 0.096 0.086 0.04 0.048 0.007 0.01 0.107 0.014 0.001 0.001 BDL BDL 0.002 BDL Chauraha Chinhat 3 Sec-8 26.8777 81.005 0.119 0.051 0.03 0.064 0.017 0.08 0.206 0.031 BDL 0.006 BDL BDL BDL BDL Indirana- gar 4 Gomati 26.8498 81.002 0.097 0.093 0.04 0.065 0.007 0.07 0.144 0.009 BDL 0.012 0.01 0.022 BDL BDL Nagar 5 Zone 2 Engineer- 26.9111 80.944 0.151 0.123 0.03 0.042 0.01 0.01 0.124 0.016 BDL 0.007 0.02 BDL BDL BDL ing College Aliganj 6 Kursi Road 26.9058 80.955 0.114 0.108 0.03 0.057 0.008 0.04 0.143 BDL BDL 0.012 BDL 0.022 BDL BDL near Sabji Mnadi 7 Kalyanpur 26.9037 80.965 0.118 0.110 0.03 0.054 0.014 0.06 0.106 0.014 BDL 0.014 BDL BDL BDL BDL 8 Vikas 26.8974 80.960 0.093 0.091 0.04 0.033 0.013 0.03 0.134 BDL BDL 0.005 BDL BDL BDL BDL Nagar- Sector 3 9 Near 26.8943 80.944 0.064 0.061 0.03 0.036 0.008 0.02 0.086 0.001 BDL 0.002 BDL 0.003 BDL BDL Purania Crossing 10 Triveni 26.8866 80.931 0.167 0.102 0.08 0.067 0.023 0.06 0.024 0.018 0.001 0.007 BDL BDL BDL BDL Nagar 11 CSIR 26.8856 80.938 0.188 0.161 0.03 0.043 0.022 0.04 0.132 0.019 BDL 0.008 0.01 BDL BDL BDL aliganj 12 Mandir 26.8816 80.950 0.093 0.057 0.03 0.076 0.012 0.07 0.149 0.043 BDL 0.002 BDL BDL BDL BDL marg Mahan- agr 13 Daliganj 26.8731 80.922 0.052 0.044 0.02 0.033 0.011 0.04 0.168 BDL 0.026 0.006 BDL BDL BDL BDL 14 Zone 3 Thakurganj 26.8701 80.891 0.134 0.087 0.02 0.046 0.013 0.04 0.120 0.014 BDL 0.019 0.01 BDL BDL BDL 15 Rajaji 26.8470 80.878 0.041 0.030 0.02 0.032 0.002 0.05 0.168 0.003 BDL 0.012 BDL BDL BDL BDL puram E-Block Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 7 of 14 67 1 3 Table 2 (continued) S. no. Zone Name of Lat. in Long. in Zn Zn Pb Pb Cd Cd Cr Cr Cu Cu Mn Mn Co Co (ppm) the loca- decimal decimal (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I (ppm) II (ppm) I II tions II II II 16 Rajaji 26.8389 80.887 0.121 0.074 0.02 0.083 0.015 0.06 0.118 0.023 BDL 0.018 BDL BDL BDL BDL puram B-Block 17 Zone 4 Bhola 26.8054 80.890 0.085 0.057 0.03 0.092 0.004 0.07 0.027 0.026 BDL 0.013 BDL BDL BDL BDL Khera Kanpur road 18 Power 26.7864 80.908 0.058 0.050 0.02 0.083 0.003 0.05 0.168 0.027 BDL 0.010 BDL BDL BDL BDL house, LDA colony 19 Hindnagar 26.7813 80.898 0.121 0.113 0.04 0.065 0.022 0.01 0.138 0.023 BDL 0.012 BDL BDL BDL BDL LDA Colony 20 Subash 26.7857 80.942 0.099 0.089 0.04 0.084 0.001 0.06 0.057 0.016 BDL 0.015 0.01 BDL BDL BDL Nagar, Telibagh 21 Ghosiyana 26.7881 80.959 0.134 0.109 0.02 0.088 0.011 0.05 0.107 0.021 BDL 0.014 BDL BDL BDL BDL Telibagh 22 Zone 5 IT crossing 26.8718 80.940 0.17 0.152 0.04 0.046 0.019 0.05 0.136 0.028 0.003 0.003 BDL BDL BDL BDL 23 SCERT, 26.8652 80.955 0.097 0.095 0.04 0.057 0.005 0.04 0.102 0.02 BDL 0.015 BDL BDL BDL BDL Nishat- ganj 24 Dalibagh 26.8504 80.960 0.097 0.052 0.06 0.077 0.005 0.06 0.123 0.028 BDL 0.007 BDL BDL BDL BDL 25 Ganesh- 26.8415 80.924 0.099 0.091 0.03 0.141 0.023 0.05 0.111 0.026 BDL 0.014 BDL 0.026 BDL BDL ganj, Amin- abad 67 Page 8 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Table 3 Standards of permissible limits of various parameters of rain- diminished learning abilities of children and behavioural dis- water (Anonymous, WHO 2006) ruptions of children, such as aggression, impulsive behav- iour and hyperactivity. Lead can enter a foetus through the Heavy metals WHO standards placenta of the mother. Because of these issues, it can cause Zinc (ppm) 3 serious damage to the nervous system and the brains of Lead (ppm) 0.01 unborn children (www.lennt ech.com). Cadmium (ppm) 0.003 In the water sample of first rainfall, Lead was found in all Chromium (ppm) 0.05 samples. The values range from 0.017 to 0.078 ppm. Com- Manganese (ppm) 0.5 paratively, in second rainfall water samples, the value of Copper (ppm) 2.0 lead slightly increased than first rainwater values. The values Cobalt (ppm) 0.0002 range between 0.03 and 0.14 ppm. All the samples show the values more than a permissible limit (0.01 ppm) define by WHO, which can be harmful for human health (Fig. 5). environment are a result of human activities. Due to the application of lead in gasoline, an unnatural lead cycle has Cadmium (Cd) taken place. In automobile engines, lead is burned, so that lead salts (chlorides, bromides, oxides) originate. These lead A limited concentration of cadmium is found in water bod- salts enter the environment through exhausts of automobiles. ies naturally through weathering of rocks and the rest of The larger particles will drop to the ground immediately the cadmium is released through human activities, such as and pollute soils or surface waters, the smaller particles will manufacturing plants and industries. Another important travel long distances through air and remain in the atmos- source of cadmium emission is during the production of phere. Part of this lead will fall back on earth when it is artificial phosphate fertilizers. Part of the cadmium ends up raining. Beside this, lead enters in drinking water primarily in the soil after the fertilizer is applied on farmland and as a result of corrosion or the wearing away of materials that the rest of the cadmium ends up in surface waters due to are in the water supply system and household plumbing. waste from fertilizer production plants (www.lenntec h.com). These materials can include lead-based solder, brass- and It is a by-product of zinc production plant and one of the chrome-plated faucets. most toxic elements to which man can be exposed through Lead fulfils no essential function in the human body; it inhalation, contaminated food and water. Once absorbed, can prove to be a serious health hazard if taken through Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it gets food, air or water. It can cause several unwanted effects, such accumulated for life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, as disruption of the biosynthesis of haemoglobin and anae- especially to the proximal tubular cells which is the main site mia, a rise in blood pressure, kidney damage, miscarriages for accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, and subtle abortions, disruption of nervous systems, brain either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result damage, declined fertility of men through sperm damage, of renal dysfunction (Bertrand et al. 2008). Fig. 4 Contour map of zinc values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and second(II) rainfall 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 9 of 14 67 Fig. 5 Contour Map of lead values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) and second (II) rainfall In the water sample of first rainfall, Cadmium was found be found in groundwater and surface water in considerable in all samples, value ranges between 0.001 and 0.022 ppm. concentrations. The concentration increases due to discharge Comparatively, in second rainfall water samples, the value of waste water into the surface water bodies and over ground of cadmium shows slight enhancement than first rainwater through various industries. The estimated safe and adequate values. The value varying from 0.07 to 0.01 ppm. According daily dietary intake range for chromium varies from 50 to to WHO specification, all the water samples show a higher 200 micrograms (Anonymous, National Research Council, concentration beyond the permissible limit (0.003 ppm). Food and Nutrition Board, Recommended Dietary Allow- This value can be harmful for human health (Fig. 6). ances, 1989). Among the two form of chromium, the triva- lent form is non-toxic but hexavalent form is very toxic for Chromium (Cr) human health. Trivalent chromium is an essential trace ele- ment for humans. Together with insulin, it removes glucose Chromium compounds are present in water samples only from blood, and it also plays a vital role in fat metabolism. in trace amounts. Chromium is found in two forms either Chromium deficits may enhance diabetes symptoms. Chro- in anionic trivalent or hexavalent. Chromium has a large mium can also be found in RNA. influence upon drinking water quality. It cannot normally Fig. 6 Contour map of cadmium values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and second(II) rainfall 1 3 67 Page 10 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Trivalent chromium (III) toxicity is unlikely at least when functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper it is taken up through food and drinking water. It may even growth, development and maintenance of bone, connective improve health and cure neuropathy and encephalopathy. tissue, brain, heart and many other body organs. Copper is Hexavalent chromium (VI) is known for its negative health involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and environmental impact, and its extreme toxicity. It causes and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and allergic and asthmatic reactions, is carcinogenic and is 1000 glucose, release of life sustaining proteins and enzymes. times as toxic as trivalent chromium. Health effects related These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regu- to hexavalent chromium exposure include diarrhoea, stom- late nerve transmission, blood clotting and oxygen trans- ach and intestinal bleedings, cramps, and liver and kidney port. However, exposure to higher doses can be harmful. damage. Hexavalent chromium is mutagenic. Toxic effects Long-term exposure to copper dust can irritate our nose, may be passed on to children through the placenta (www. mouth and eyes, and causes headaches, dizziness, nausea, lennt ech.com). and diarrhoea (Anonymous, Agency for Toxic Substances In the water sample of first rainfall, chromium was found and Disease Registry, 2004). in all samples with the value ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 ppm. In the water sample of first rainfall, copper was found only Comparatively, in second rainfall water samples, the chro- in 4 samples out of 25 samples, values range between 0.0006 mium was found in 22 samples out of 25 samples. The value and 0.0268 ppm. Comparatively, in second rainfall water ranges between 0.0009 and 0.04 ppm. It indicates that the samples, the copper was found in all samples. It is observed concentration of chromium in first rainfall water, except one that, the value of copper has increased than first rainwater sample, is high than permissible limit defined by WHO, that values. The values range from 0.0008 to 0.0194 ppm. This values can be harmful for human health. While the second result shows that all the values come under prescribed stand- rainfall values come under the permissible limit (Fig. 7). ards by WHO, but the values are too low, therefore, all the samples are deficient in copper, which can be harmful for Copper (Cu) human health (Fig. 8). Copper is a very common substance that occurs naturally Manganese (Mn) in the environment and spreads through the environment in a natural way. On account of human activities such as dis- Manganese compounds exist naturally in the environment posal of waste water that is contaminated with copper to the as solid compounds in the soil and as dissolved particles water bodies such as ponds, bawori, canals, etc. there would in the water. Humans enhance manganese concentrations be increased concentration of copper. Although copper is in the air by industrial activities and through burning fossil a toxic heavy metal, yet it is essential for good health. The fuels. Manganese that derives from human sources can also recommended daily dose of copper is 1.5–2.5 mg per day enter surface water, groundwater and sewage water. Man- by WHO. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins ganese is an essential nutrient involved in the formation of and metallo-enzymes which perform essential metabolic bone besides its active role in amino acid, cholesterol, and Fig. 7 Contour Map of chromium values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) and second (II) rainfall 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 11 of 14 67 Fig. 8 Contour map of copper values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and second(II) rainfall carbohydrate metabolism. The recommended daily intake In the water sample of first rainfall, manganese was found dose of manganese is 5 mg/day. The deficiency of manga- only in 6 samples out of 25 samples. The concentration nese can also cause adverse health effects such as skin prob- varies from 0.001 to 0.02 ppm. Comparatively, in second lems, changes of hair colour, glucose intolerance, neurologi- rainfall water samples, the manganese was found in only cal symptoms, etc. four samples. It is observed that the value of manganese has On the other hand, the overdose of manganese severely slightly increased than first rainwater values. The concen- affects the respiratory tract and brain. Symptoms of manga- tration ranges between 0.003 and 0.025 ppm. According to nese poisoning are hallucinations, forgetfulness and nerve WHO specification, all the water samples show the concen - damage. Manganese can also cause Parkinson, lung embo- tration below permissible limit (0.5 ppm). The result shows lism and bronchitis. When men are exposed to manganese that there is deficiency of manganese in the samples, which for a longer period of time they may become impotent. A can be harmful for human health (Fig. 9). syndrome that is caused by Manganese has symptoms such as schizophrenia, dullness, weak muscles, headaches and insomnia (www.lennt ech.com). Fig. 9 Contour Map of manganese values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) and second (II) rainfall 1 3 67 Page 12 of 14 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Fig. 10 Contour map of cobalt values at five zones of Lucknow city during first (I) rainfall and animals to average levels of cobalt normally found in Cobalt (Co) the environment is not harmful. When too much cobalt is taken into body, however, harmful health effects can occur. Cobalt may enter the environment from both natural Serious effects on the lungs, including asthma, pneumo- sources and human activities. Cobalt occurs naturally in nia and wheezing have been found in people exposed to soil, rock, air, water, plants, and animals. It may enter air 0.005 mg/m . Nonradioactive cobalt has not been found to and water, and settle on land from windblown dust, seawa- cause cancer in humans or in animals following exposure ter spray, volcanic eruptions and forest fires and may addi- in the food or water. Cancer has been shown to occur in tionally get into surface water from runoff and leaching animals who breathed cobalt or when cobalt was placed when rainwater washes through soil and rock containing directly into the muscle or under the skin (Anonymous, cobalt. Cobalt has both beneficial and harmful effects on Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004). human health. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it In the water sample of first rainfall, cobalt was found only is part of vitamin B which is essential to maintain human in 1 sample out of 25 samples, value is 0.02 ppm, which is health. Cobalt (0.16–1.0 mg/kg of body weight) has also beyond the permissible limit (0.0002 ppm). Comparatively, been used as a treatment for anaemia (less than normal in second rainfall water, none of the samples show the cobalt number of red blood cells), including in pregnant women concentration (Fig. 10). because it causes red blood cells to be produced. Cobalt also increases red blood cell production in healthy people, but only at very high exposure levels. Exposure of humans 1 3 Applied Water Science (2018) 8:67 Page 13 of 14 67 Table 4 Mean values of S. no. Parameters Mean values of first rainwa- Mean values of second rain- Standard different heavy metals of ter (5th July, 2012) water (9th July, 2012) values rainwater samples collected (ppm) from five zones of Lucknow city (ppm parts per million or mg/l, 1 Zinc 0.122 0.085 3 BDL below detection limit) 2 Lead 0.033 0.062 0.01 3 Cadmium 0.011 0.046 0.003 4 Chromium 0.121 0.017 0.05 5 Copper 0.001 0.01 2.0 6 Cobalt 0.0001 BDL 0.0002 7 Manganese 0.002 0.003 0.5 Conclusions References Anonymous (2005) APHA, 19th edition, American Public Health The present study reveals the concentration of heavy met- Association AWWA, Water Pollution Control Federation, New als in the rainwater sample of the Lucknow city. The mean York values of different parameters are generally within the per - Anonymous (1989) National Research Council, Food and Nutrition missible limits (Table 4). Board, Recommended Dietary Allowances Anonymous (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin a, vitamin The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first k, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead Anonymous (2004) Agency for toxic substances and disease registry were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These Anonymous (2006) World health organization report, 2006. http://water .epa.gov/actio n/advis or ies /dr ink ing/uploa d/2009_04_27_cr ite heavy metals show the concentration above the permissi- ria_drink ing_dwsta ndard s.pdf ble limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse Anonymous (2011) Census of India. http://www .censu s2011 .co.in/ health impacts. However, some parameters like zinc, copper, census/city/127 lucknow.html cobalt and manganese are present in very low concentra- Anonymous (2012) Indian institute of Toxicology Research (IITR) March–May, 2012 Report, Assessment of Environmental Status tions, which can also create health problems as these heavy of Lucknow City, Lucknow metals are essential for the proper development and metabo- Anonymous (2013a) Regional Transport Office (RTO), Lucknow, lism of the human body. 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Applied Water ScienceSpringer Journals

Published: Apr 21, 2018

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