Modeling Earth Systems and Environment (2018) 4:729–752
Assessment of landﬁlls vulnerability on the groundwater quality
located near ﬂoodplain of the perennial river and simulation
of contaminant transport
Sunil Kumar Srivastava
· AL Ramanathan
Received: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published online: 19 April 2018
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018
This investigation was carried out with the objective to understand the impacts of landﬁll leachate on groundwater quality.
This study also explained the movement of trace metals in groundwater by using Visual MODFLOW/MT3D. It also delineates
the various factors controlling the suitability of groundwater for domestic, agriculture and drinking purpose. The statistical
assessment shows ~ 60.09% groundwater are in good condition, ~ 35.38% in poor condition and 4.53% in very poor condition.
The spatial distributions of water quality index (LWQI) around landﬁlls indicate landﬁlls are in depleted condition. Hydrogeo-
chemical classiﬁcation indicates ~ 90.91% groundwater shows Ca–Na water-type cation facies and Cl
water-type anion facies.
While 9.09% groundwater shows Ca–Na water-type cation facies and Cl
anion hydrogeochemical facies. The
mineral equilibrium diagram of groundwater has revealed that it is in equilibrium with silicate minerals and favors kaolinite
formation. The saturation index indicates chrysotile (Mg
) (2.84), dolomite (CaMg(CO
) (0.45), ferric hydrox-
) (1.97–3.58), goethite (FeOOH) (7.86–9.47), hematite (Fe
) (17.73–20.95), hydroxyapatite (Ca
(2.38–4.62), jarosite-K (KFe
) (0.22–1.92), cerussite (PbCO
) (0.39), vivianite (Fe
O) (0.39) and
) (0.35) are reactive mineral in groundwater aquifer of study area. The seasonal and temporal variation
indicates anthropogenic inﬂuence. The calibration and validation of model show > 90% models correct with 95% conﬁdence.
The contaminant transport simulated in groundwater aquifer with the high accuracy (estimated standard error 0.049 m) for
the large area (~ 300 km
). The trends of contour lines of trace metals concentration indicate; it will contaminate study area
within few years of its release through the landﬁll.
Keywords Groundwater modeling · Landﬁll · LWQI · Contaminant transport · Chemical speciation
Water is essential for the survival of all the living being, the
most precious gift of nature. Groundwater is one of the major
sources of freshwater in the densely populated study area.
Increasing demand of groundwater due to ever-increasing
population has initiated the need for an eﬀective manage-
ment of available groundwater resource (Arrieta et al. 2016;
Ghiani et al. 2012; Ljunggren 2003; Zhao et al. 2012; Yalew
et al. 2016). Further industrialization in all cities and dump-
ing of their eﬄuent/waste in the unplanned landﬁll causes
a great concern to environmentalist (Das 2017; Srivastava
and Ramanathan 2008; Jang and Chen 2015; Li et al. 2017;
Kumar and Alappat 2005; Jang and Hong 2002).The avail-
ability of geogenic trace metal in groundwater in fractured
crystalline bedrock aquifers (semiconﬁned) is the major con-
cern in these areas, which rely on private bedrock borewells
for their domestic/agriculture water supply (Ryan et al. 2013;
Zheng and Ayotte 2015). The concentration of trace metal
further increases in groundwater due to leaching of these
metals through unplanned landﬁll located in the ﬂoodplain
of the perennial river (Bezama et al. 2007; Finnveden et al.
1995; Radnekova-Yaneva et al. 1995; Jha et al. 2011; Renou
et al. 2008; Tchobanouglus et al. 1998; Zamorano et al.
2009; Olaniya et al. 1991; Srivastava and Ramanathan 2012;
* Sunil Kumar Srivastava
Department of Chemistry/Chemical Engineering, Jaypee
University of Engineering and Technology, A.B. Road,
Raghogarh, Guna, MP, India
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru
University (JNU), New Delhi, India