Over time, many pollutants of anthropogenic origin have caused the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Among several characteristics, these compounds can reach the trophic chain, causing deleterious interactions with the biota. Pharmaceutical substances can be included in this scenario as emerging contaminants that reach the aquatic environment because of direct human and veterinary usage, and release by industrial effluents, as well as through domestic dumping of surplus drugs. The effects of these compounds on exposed organisms have been studied since the 1990s, but ecotoxicological data for such chemicals are still scarce especially concerning aquatic organisms from tropical regions. Paracetamol and propranolol were selected for this study since they are frequently found in surface waters. Paracetamol is a drug used as analgesic and antipyretic, while propranolol, a β-blocker, is used in the treatment of hypertension. The objective of this study was to assess the toxic effects of these substances on the neotropical freshwater fish Phalloceros harpagos after acute (96 h) and chronic (28 days) exposures. In order to understand the effects of these drugs on P. harpagos, biochemical markers were selected, including the enzymes involved in oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, and neurotransmission (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and cholinesterase activities, respectively). After acute exposure, no significant alterations were observed for catalase activity, suggesting the absence of oxidative stress. On the contrary, significant alterations in glutathione-S-transferases activity were described for the higher concentrations of both pharmaceuticals after acute exposure. In addition, acute exposure to paracetamol caused a significant increase of cholinesterase activity. None of the tested pharmaceuticals caused significant changes in catalase or cholinesterase activities after chronic exposure. Glutathione S-transferases activity was significantly increased for propranolol following chronic exposure, indicating the potential involvement of phase II detoxification pathway.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 15, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera