In the present study, potential health risks posed to human population from Ropar wetland and its vicinity, by consumption of inorganic arsenic (i-As) via arsenic contaminated rice grains and groundwater, were assessed. Total arsenic (t-As) in soil and rice grains were found in the range of 0.06–0.11 mg/kg and 0.03–0.33 mg/kg, respectively, on dry weight basis. Total arsenic in groundwater was in the range of 2.31–15.91 μg/L. i-As was calculated from t-As using relevant conversion factors. Rice plants were found to be arsenic accumulators as bioconcentration factor (BCF) was observed to be >1 in 75% of rice grain samples. Further, correlation analysis revealed that arsenic accumulation in rice grains decreased with increase in the electrical conductivity of soil. One-way ANOVA, cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that both geogenic and anthropogenic sources affected t-As in soil and groundwater. Hazard index and total cancer risk estimated for individuals from the study area were above the USEPA limits of 1.00 and 1.00 × 10−6, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test indicated that groundwater intake posed significantly higher health risk than rice grain consumption (χ 2(1) = 17.280, p = 0.00003).
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 16, 2017
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