ASPECTS OF THE AERODYNAMICS IN THE WORKING SPACE
OF A MODERN ELECTRIC-ARC STEELMAKING FURNACE
G. V. Voronov,
M. V. Antropov,
and O. V. Porokh
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 19 – 21, July, 2014.
Original article submitted June 10, 2014.
The standard arrangement of burners in the working space of modern electric-arc steelmaking furnaces is ana
lyzed. The conditions under which the location of the burners would be optimum are determined and an effi
cient system is proposed for their installation in the furnace. Special attention is given to the energy efficiency
and safety of gas-oxygen burners and combination burners and to improving the service conditions of the elec
trodes and the refractory lining in the slag zone.
Keywords: gas-oxygen burner, combination-type combustion lance, aerodynamic angle, flame projection,
heat transfer, electric-arc steelmaking furnace.
Ensuring that electric-arc steelmaking furnaces (EAFs)
are highly productive and energy-efficient and that their lin-
ings are reliable is a matter which is deserving of special at-
tention. There is a clear trend toward the use of various meth-
ods of intensifying the steelmaking operation, especially the
use of wall-mounted burners of the gas-oxygen type (BGOs)
and combination-type combustion lances (CCLs). These de-
vices have quickly come into wide use and are now consid
ered standard equipment on EAFs. However, there has as yet
been little study of the actual effectiveness of fuel-oxygen
In our view, the standard proposals made by foreign
companies to supply electrical steelmaking equipment in
Russia do not meet current requirements in regard to energy
efficiency and safety. We reached this conclusion based on
experience with the industrial use of EAFs at metallurgical
plants in the Ural region.
Gas-oxygen burners and combination-type combustion
lances are very important for organizing the steelmaking op
eration in modern EAFs. Their use solves a range of engi
neering problems related to increasing the productivity of the
furnace and shortening the heat. These types of burners make
it possible to use alternative heat sources and save some of
the electric power that would otherwise be expended during
the melting period. There is no doubt that the use of gas-oxy
gen burners significantly reduces the unit consumption of
electric power and electrodes .
The additional use of energy from a fuel in the working
space of the furnace theoretically also helps substantially im-
prove the furnace’s main performance indices. However, ob-
taining a positive result in this case depends appreciably on
the positioning of the burners and their operating regime .
In this investigation, we examine a scheme which posi
tions gas-oxygen burners and combination burner lances hor
izontally in an existing furnace. According to the data in ,
the aerodynamic angle of expansion of the gas-oxygen flame
» 37°. This makes it possible to project the limits of
propagation of the gas flows onto the surface of the bath.
Figure 1a shows the existing location of the fuel-burning
devices (FBDs) in the furnace. Such positioning of the de
vices makes it impossible to provide for rapid and uniform
heating over the entire surface of the charge. Operation of the
furnace in this manner leads to the formation of an over
heated peripheral region A, where the charge undergoes rapid
heating and then settles in the furnace. Cold region B exists
simultaneously, with the heating of the charge taking a long
period of time in this part of the furnace. Such uneven heat
ing and contraction of the charge materials can result in col
lapse of the charge as a whole, which damages the electrodes
and destabilizes the combustion of the electric arc.
In addition, the radial positioning of the burners, facing
toward the center of the furnace, does not create the condi
tions needed for circulation of the combustion products in
the horizontal plane and intensification of convective heat
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 55, No. 4, November, 2014
1083-4877/14/05504-0285 © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.