The effects of arsenic (As) on growth and antioxidant metabolism of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. cv. Azad) plants were studied using 10, 20, and 30 mg As/kg of soil in a pot experiment under controlled conditions. The length and dry weights of shoots and roots, photosynthetic traits, and grain yield components exhibited a significant increase over control (0 mg As/kg) at As20 but decreased markedly at As30. The cause of this completely reverse response of plant growth between As20 and As30 was investigated in the backdrop of H2O2 metabolism by analyzing responses of three prominent antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with cellular ascorbate pool and its redox state. Despite a significant increase in the H2O2 content in both As20 and As30 plants, the former, unlike As30 plants, did not experience any type of As-induced oxidative stress (membrane lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage). Normal to high levels of leaf APX, CAT, and redox pool of ascorbate effectively balanced the elevated SOD activity at As20, maintaining the H2O2 concentration higher than control but obviously in favor of As20 plant growth. By contrast, soil amendment with phosphorus (200 mg P/kg) at As30 prevented As-induced oxidative stress through the reduction of the H2O2 level even below As0. The increased enzyme activity was mainly due to the induction of unique Cu/Zn, Fe, and Mn isoforms of SOD and APX-3/APX-4 and/or their increased expression in coordination with CAT. The detection of novel isoforms suggests a strong response of H2O2-metabolizing enzymes against As-induced oxidative stress in fenugreek.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 14, 2013
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