ARC MELTING PLANT FOR SYNTHESIZING
AND PRODUCING FUSION-CAST REFRACTORIES
V. A. Sokolov,
M. D. Gasparyan,
and P. P. Mamochkin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 6, pp. 15 – 18, June, 2009.
Original article submitted January 11, 2009.
Data are given on arc melting plant for synthesizing and producing fusion-cast refractories. The technical
characteristics of experimental plant type EDP-600 with moving electrodes are such as to allow one to synthe
size fused materials on the basis of the oxides Al
, MgO, Cr
, and ZrO
, and also allows one to produce
refractory components for industrial glass-melting furnaces. The DSPM-1.5 arc furnace is recommended for
the industrial production of fusion-cast baddeleyite-corundum, high-alumina, and chromium-bearing refractories.
Keywords: fusion-cast refractory, arc furnace, glass-melting furnace, corundum, oxidative melting.
Fusion-cast refractory materials have unique properties:
no permeable porosity, high structural density and
thermomechanical strength parameters, and exceptionally
high corrosion resistance to mineral liquids (slags, glasses,
fluxes, glass sinters, and so on), so they have a special place
amongst refractories used in the metallurgical and glass
branches of industry. The proportion of fusion-cast
refractories in the total consumption in glass-melting fur-
naces of traditional design is 40%, while in electrical fur-
naces it attains 80%. Current glass technology could not op
erate without fusion-cast refractories. The largest world pro
ducers (the USA, France, Japan, and Hungary) have been
supplemented in the period 1990 – 2005 by new producers in
Belgium, Australia, India, China (over 8 plants), and the
A basic technological operation in making fusion-cast
refractories is the production of a homogeneous liquid of
given chemical composition and required properties. In the
industrial production of such refractories, only arc melting
furnaces are used, where the heat source is electric arcs. The
concentrated deposition of energy in small volumes in such
furnaces provides high temperatures necessary for melting
charges on the basis of refractory oxides Al
, and so on. An electric arc provides also a high
heating rate, high throughput, and in most cases the required
purity of the melted components.
Industrial production of these refractories requires spe-
cial melting plant, which is hardly used at all in metallurgy
and is made to special order. There is a basic specification for
melting an oxide charge in an arc furnace, namely a high
temperature of 2200 – 2700°C, which should melt the oxides
and produce a fluid for making items of mass 200 – 800 kg
by casting in a mold.
At present in the Russian Federation, the producers of fu
sion-cast refractories are the Shcherbinka Plant for
Electromelted Refractories (SZEPO) Company and the Po
dol‘skogneupor Company. Their products are represented by
two types of refractory: baddeleyite-corundum ones of grade
Bk-33, Bk-37, and Bk-41, and corundum ones of grade
KEL-93 and KEL-95. Refractories made by reductive melt
ing in furnaces of type OKB 2130 and OKB 2126 [1, pp.
32 – 34] are characterized by an elevated tendency to show
damage (bubbles, streaks, and so on) on contact with the
glass. There are high indices for bubble formation in Russian
fusion-cast baddeleyite-corundum and corundum compo
nents on account primarily of the content of carbon-bearing
impurities, which restricts the use of such refractories in
glass furnaces for making special glasses (for light engineer
ing, medicine, optics, electrovacuum devices, and so on).
The quality of these refractories may be raised by trans
ferring to oxidative melting (melting with electrodes lifted
above the liquid). This requires upgraded arc furnaces with
higher energy input. Calculations show that oxidative melt
ing causes an additional potential drop in the arc U
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 3, 2009
1083-4877/09/5003-0185 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
National Technological Research University (Moscow Institute
for Steel and Alloys), Moscow, Russia.
NPF BakorSpetsProm Corporation, Shcherbinka, Moscow Re
NTTs Bakor Company, Shcherbinka, Moscow Region, Russia.