Cadmium (Cd) may be toxic to aquatic plants even at modest concentrations, and excessive quantities of zinc (Zn) decrease plant performance. The Cd and Zn phytoremediation potential of several aquatic plant species (Thalia geniculate, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes) and one grass species (Vetiveria zizanioides) was evaluated in hydroponic experiments. Vetiveria zizanioides, E. crassipes, and P. stratiotes experienced reduced growth performance in the presence of Cd as determined from biomass production, survival rate, and crown root number (CN); however, they accumulated high quantities of metals in their tissues, particularly in roots. Root accumulation is considered a key characteristic of so-called excluder species. In this study, only E. crassipes and P. stratiotes had bioconcentration factors and translocation factors (> 1000 and < 1, respectively) suitable for high phytostabilization of Cd. Furthermore, V. zizanioides and P. stratiotes showed the highest percent metal uptake from solution and removal capacity for Zn (~70% and ~2 mg d−1 g−1, respectively). Emergent aquatic species (particularly C. alternifolius and T. geniculate) adapted and lived well in Cd- and Zn-contaminated solution and took up high quantities of Cd and Zn in roots, and are therefore considered strong excluders. Beneficial uses of such species in contaminated wetlands include stabilizing toxic metals and limiting erosion. Plant tissue can be applied to other uses, including as a biomass fuel. In field situations, the candidate species may work best when grown together, since each plant genotype possesses a different potential to control Cd and Zn.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 17, 2018
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