Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 9, pp. 1466−1474.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text
A.A. Kossoy, Yu.G. Akhmetshin, A.I. Benin, 2012, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2012, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 138−148.
MODELING AND CALCULATION
OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Applying Mathematical Simulation for Design of Inherently Safe
Chemical Processes: I. Providing Inherent Safety
A. A. Kossoy, Yu. G. Akhmetshin, and A. I. Benin
Cheminform St. Petersburg (CISP) Ltd., St. Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: Kossoy@cisp.spb.ru, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received May 5, 2012
Abstract—The chemical industry is one of the most important and agilely developing sectors of the economy. At
the same time, chemical plants are extremely hazardous. Therefore, the safety of chemical plants is of paramount
importance. One of the promising methods for the solution of this problem is developing the inherently safe pro-
cesses, i.e., processes of less prone to hazardous instability or uncontrolled state (thermal explosion). A technique
for the optimization of process for selected equipment and in-process materials is outlined that enables ﬁ nding
the operational mode, which guarantees the safety of the process under normal conditions of its proceeding and
provides the maximum achievable safety in the case of an accident. The approach is considered on the example
of an emergency scenario of disfunction in maintaining the heat regime (cooling failure). The basic ideas of ap-
plying the method of nonlinear optimization are considered for the developing the inherent safety of the process.
Formulation of the problem, selection of criteria for the optimization, methods for setting the control variables
are reported. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by several examples.
The chemical industry
of the most important
of the economy. At the
same time, chemical plants are extremely hazardous.
Many major accidents and man-made disasters with
serious consequences occurred because of exothermic
chemical reactions being out of control. Therefore,
the safety of chemical production is of paramount
Required level of safety of chemical plant can be
achieved in various ways. In each case, a compromise
is sought for between the potential risk, risk reduction,
which can be reached by engineering and organizational
measures to ensure the safety, and their cost.
Traditional methods of providing safety are focused on
improvements in these “additional” engineering and
organizational measures. At the same time, the potential
hazard of the process can be reduced or even eliminated
by proper equipment design of the process, careful
selection of substances involved in the reaction, and
choice of operational conditions. In this case, the need
for the above-mentioned “additional” safety systems is
signiﬁ cantly reduced. The process can be considered as
“inherently safer,” since its safety is provided mainly by
its inherent fundamental properties and to a much lesser
degree by “additional” activities.
The term “inherently safer” expresses the idea of the
process, which is inherently less hazardous due to using
less hazardous substances, conditions or equipment, or in
connection with the fact that it is less prone to hazardous
instability or uncontrolled state (thermal explosion). An
important advantage of this approach is that it provides
a means to ensure the safety and the prevention of the
losses in an emergency by affecting the very source of
hazard using strategic and integrated way.
Virtually, many industrial processes use signiﬁ cant
amounts of hazardous substances or are hazardous due
to a possible thermal explosion (highly exothermic
process). The question arises: is it possible to change the