In order to gain additional insight into mercury selectivity with nano-sized DMSA-[silica], we investigated a series of ligands related to DMSA, these are: monomercaptosuccinic acid; MMSA, 2-mercapto-4-methyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid; MCT, ortho-thiosalicylic acid; o-TSA and para-thiosalicylic acid; p-TSA. The MMSA chelate is structurally similar to DMSA except that it has only one thiol group. The chelates o-TSA and p-TSA each have one thiol and one carboxylic acid group. MCT includes neutral S and N atoms in close proximity to the thiolate binding site. MCT, o-TSA and p-TSA resemble each other in having equal numbers of carboxylic acid and thiol groups and formation of amide bonds with the linker on silica is expected to eliminate the carboxylate binding sites, making thiolates the only binding sites for Hg(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) metals ions in the nano-sized; MMSA-[silica], MCT-[silica], o-TSA-[silica], and p-TSA-[silica]. Each of the nano-sized MMSA-[silica], MCT-[silica], o-TSA-[silica], and p-TSA-[silica], show a higher preference for Hg(II) over Cd(II) and Pb(II) compared to the same free chelates in solution, respectively. In addition, there are differences in the level of metal ion chelation for each functionalized silica nanoparticle. These differences in the degree of metal chelation for each functionalized silica nanoparticles surface are explained by the difference in thiolate/carboxylate ratio upon attachment to the surface and on steric reasons based on the orientation of the thiol groups on the surface. When attached via amide bond formation, the thiolate site in o-TSA-[silica] will face towards the silica surface, while for p-TSA-[silica], the thiolate site is expected to be pointed outwards and away from the silica surface. In comparing MMSA-[silica] to DMSA-[silica], the thiolate/carboxylate ratio decreases from 2/1 in DMSA-[silica] to 1/1 in MMSA-[silica] (assuming attachment via one amide bond in each case). This effect of increasing the ratio of thiolate to carboxylate upon attachment to the surface is believed to play a role in the selectivity enhancement towards Hg(II) over Cd(II) and Pb(II).
Research on Chemical Intermediates – Springer Journals
Published: May 8, 2011
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