Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Vol. 54, Nos. 1–2, May, 2018 (Russian Original Nos. 1–2, Jan.–Feb., 2018)
Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Translated from Khimicheskoe i Neftegazovoe
Mashinostroenie, No. 1, pp. 7–11, January, 2018.
APPLICATION OF EJECTORS IN UTILIZATION
MODULES OF AMMONIUM NITRATE
D. A. Levchenko, A. E. Artyukhov,
and M. G. Prokopov
The possibility of application of various types of ejectors in utilization modules for ammonium nitrate
granulation is explored. The peculiarities of the working process of the utilization module which uses ejectors
of various designs are described. The advantages of application of each type of ejectors are shown and the
basic postulates of the mathematical model of the working process of vortex and jet ejectors are listed.
Keywords: vortex ejector, jet ejector, granulation, ammonium nitrate, utilization.
Ejector devices gained popularity in various technologies because of their design simplicity and reliability. These
devices could be both primary (separation, fractionation, cooling, heating, injection, suction, etc.) and auxiliary (intensiﬁ ca-
tion of heat and mass transfer processes).
Application of ejector devices as utilization modules of chemical production plants (for example, for cleaning efﬂ u-
ent air in fertilizer production for extracting gases containing ammonia, ﬂ uorine, nitrogen oxides, etc.) can help dispense with
large mass transfer and reaction equipment.
The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of use of various types of ejector devices as components of the
utilization module in the ammonium nitrate granulation process scheme (Fig. 1).
In the ammonium nitrate granule production process in vortex granulators [1–5], gaseous nitrous oxide (concentra-
tion in efﬂ uent gases 0.005–0.01 kg/m
), ﬁ ne off-grade ammonium nitrate granules and dusts (roughly 1% of ﬁ nished product
output of the vortex granulator, size smaller than 0.5 mm), and ammonia (concentration in efﬂ uent gases 0.003–0.005 kg/m
are formed intensively. Because of this, conversion of nitrous oxide (I) and thermal decomposition of off-grade ammonium
nitrate with the formation of higher oxides and their return to the production process are of practical interest. This will en-
hance the nitrogen conversion cycle efﬁ ciency at the enterprise and reduce the amount of emissions of nitrogen-containing
compounds to the atmosphere.
The basic process scheme functions as follows. The process air is injected by a gas blower into a heater where it is
heated up for further use as a heat carrier and ﬂ uidizing agent for creating a swirling suspended layer. The heated air is injected
into a vortex granulator 1 (Fig. 1). After contact with ammonium nitrate solution, the gas leaves the granulator. The granules
of the ﬁ nished product are withdrawn from the granulator bottom, sent to a ﬂ uidized bed cooler 2, and cooled by air injected
into the apparatus by gas blowers, after which the granules are packaged. The foul air leaving the granulator as well as the gas
from the ﬂ uidized bed cooler contain dust, ﬁ ne ammonium nitrate granules, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. These gases ﬂ ow
into the bottom section of an absorber 3 for absorptive cleaning.
Amongst the familiar methods of nitrous oxide conversion to higher oxides, two methods stand out.
First method – thermochemical oxidation: nitrous oxide is exposed to a ﬂ ame and then the formed products with the
general formula NO
(x = 1 or 2) are extracted .
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