ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2017, Vol. 90, No. 3, pp. 458−466. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2017.
The text was submitted by the authors in English.
Applicability of Anthracite Filtration‒
Micro Electrolysis‒Sand Filtration for the Treatment
of Surface Waters Containing High Turbidity
S huai Zhang, Zhi-Wei Zhao*, Zhen-Dong Fang, and Jie Liu
Department of National Defense Architecture Planning and Environment Engineering,
Logistical Engineering University, Chongqing 401311, China
Received April 5, 2017
Abstract—The effect of combined ﬁ ltration efﬁ ciency on the performance of anthracite ﬁltration‒micro elec-
trolysis‒sand ﬁltration (AMS) was investigated. Impact of different operating parameters, such as iron‒carbon
ratio of micro electrolytic units, ﬁltration velocity of AMS, were studied. It was found that when iron‒carbon
ratio was 6 : 4, the AMS’s average turbidity removal rate was 96.75% at the ﬁltration velocity of 3 m h
results showed that when the ﬁ ltration rate was 3‒9 m h
and iron‒carbon ratio was 6 : 4, the turbidity removal
efﬁ ciency was over 94%, and the turbidity of the efﬂ uent was less than 1 NTU in effective ﬁ ltration cycle. The
effective ﬁ ltration cycle can last for more than 5 h or longer. Meanwhile, the removal rate of UV
33%, and the concentration of iron ions in the efﬂ uent is less than 0.15 mg L
. Turbidity and iron indicators have
reached the national drinking water standards. It was also found the mechanism of iron‒carbon micro electrolytic
enhanced ﬁ ltration by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. And It was also speculated the
reasons for the reaction passivation.
Surface water is a major source of drinking water in
most remote rural areas in Ya dong of the Tibet in China.
In the dry season, ice and snow melting water have be en
used for drinking and cooking in rural communities of
these districts due to its good quality. However, during the
monsoon season, the turbidity of the river becomes high
due to the fact that rainwater erodes the fragile topsoil
which ﬂ ow into the river . The communities collect
the water from river for drinking and cooking.
Conventional coagulation‒sedimentation‒ﬁ ltration‒
disinfection process of water plant is widely applicable in
cities and towns
. However, for these r ural communities,
it is not realistic to build large-scale wa ter plant and then
supply tap water to these areas. Conventional water
treatment of water plant requires precise control of
coagulant and needs a great deal of area to build the
. High-cost construction, hard maintenance
and complicated operational methods are the obstacle to
build large-scale water plant. Instead, establishing the
integrated small water puriﬁ cation equipment is more
realistic due to its high efﬁ ciency, miniaturization, and a
certain combination of water supply.
In recent years, in order to achieve the purpose of
removing suspended solid (SS), many water puriﬁ cation
technologies is often combined with a certain technology
into a uniﬁ ed device. Fiber-ball ﬁ lter media ﬁ ltration is
a new energy-saving method of water treatment. The
process with high efﬁ cient removal of turbidity makes its
. Membrane technology is also used
to remove SS due to its compact construction, small size,
and effective treatment. However, these methods are not
suitable for local conditions which are lack of electricity
and technical capacities.
The multistage ﬁltration of anthracite ﬁltration–micro
electrolysis–sand ﬁltration (AMS) can reduce the turbidity