Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol present in many plants. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular interaction of GA with the human erythrocyte membrane and to determine its antioxidant capacity. The molecular interaction with the membrane of human red cells and the antioxidant property was assayed on both human red cells and molecular models of its membrane. Observations by optical, scanning electron, and defocusing microscopy demonstrated that GA is capable to convert red cells from their normal biconcave shape to crenated echinocytes. This result indicates that GA molecules are positioned in the outer monolayer of the red cell membrane. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were selected as classes of phospholipids found in the outer and inner monolayers of the red cell membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry showed that GA was preferentially bound to DMPC bilayers. Experiments related to the antioxidant capacity of GA indicated that this compound offsets HClO oxidative capacity on DMPE bilayers. In addition, optical, scanning, defocusing microscopy, and hemolysis assays confirmed the protective capacity of GA against HClO deleterious effects on human red cells. As a conclusion, GA would be capable to block the access of oxidants into the lipid bilayer, and thus avoid their access into red cells.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 27, 2016
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