Antidepressant Efficacy and Tolerability of Ketamine and Esketamine: A Critical Review

Antidepressant Efficacy and Tolerability of Ketamine and Esketamine: A Critical Review Ketamine and its enantiomer S-ketamine (esketamine) are promising candidates to produce a rapid-onset antidepressant effect in treatment-resistant depression. Ketamine causes continued blockade of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, though this might not primarily mediate the antidepressant effect. Alternative hypotheses include selectivity for the NMDA receptor subtype containing the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), inhibition of the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrKB), and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, alongside other independent actions attributed to the ketamine metabolism to R-hydroxynorketamine (R-HNK). The enantiomer S-ketamine (esketamine) displays approximately fourfold greater affinity for the glutamate NMDA receptor in vitro than R-ketamine. Proof-of-concept single-dose and repeat-dose studies with intravenous ketamine show a significant antidepressant and probably antisuicidal effect in the short term, with response rates over 60% as early as 4.5 h after a single dose, with a sustained effect after 24 h, and over 40% after 7 days. This response can be further sustained over several weeks with repeated doses (two to three doses per week). Tolerability seems acceptable in the short term, with transient elevation of blood pressure and mild and transient dissociative and psychotomimetic effects. Intranasal esketamine has shown a comparable antidepressant effect, which has resulted in the US FDA granting the drug a “breakthrough therapy” designation, and theoretically it may offer an improved tolerability profile. However, major concerns remain regarding an effective protocol to maintain the clinical antidepressant effect of ketamine seen with acute administration and the safety of ketamine and esketamine in the long term, specifically related to potential neurocognitive and urologic toxicity, together with the potential induction of substance use disorders. Ketamine and esketamine are not currently approved treatments for depression, but the clinical use of ketamine is increasing in a variety of practice settings internationally. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png CNS Drugs Springer Journals

Antidepressant Efficacy and Tolerability of Ketamine and Esketamine: A Critical Review

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/antidepressant-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-ketamine-and-esketamine-a-7d0K9ubrTg
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Medicine & Public Health; Neurology; Psychopharmacology; Pharmacotherapy; Neurosciences; Psychiatry
ISSN
1172-7047
eISSN
1179-1934
D.O.I.
10.1007/s40263-018-0519-3
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Ketamine and its enantiomer S-ketamine (esketamine) are promising candidates to produce a rapid-onset antidepressant effect in treatment-resistant depression. Ketamine causes continued blockade of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, though this might not primarily mediate the antidepressant effect. Alternative hypotheses include selectivity for the NMDA receptor subtype containing the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), inhibition of the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrKB), and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, alongside other independent actions attributed to the ketamine metabolism to R-hydroxynorketamine (R-HNK). The enantiomer S-ketamine (esketamine) displays approximately fourfold greater affinity for the glutamate NMDA receptor in vitro than R-ketamine. Proof-of-concept single-dose and repeat-dose studies with intravenous ketamine show a significant antidepressant and probably antisuicidal effect in the short term, with response rates over 60% as early as 4.5 h after a single dose, with a sustained effect after 24 h, and over 40% after 7 days. This response can be further sustained over several weeks with repeated doses (two to three doses per week). Tolerability seems acceptable in the short term, with transient elevation of blood pressure and mild and transient dissociative and psychotomimetic effects. Intranasal esketamine has shown a comparable antidepressant effect, which has resulted in the US FDA granting the drug a “breakthrough therapy” designation, and theoretically it may offer an improved tolerability profile. However, major concerns remain regarding an effective protocol to maintain the clinical antidepressant effect of ketamine seen with acute administration and the safety of ketamine and esketamine in the long term, specifically related to potential neurocognitive and urologic toxicity, together with the potential induction of substance use disorders. Ketamine and esketamine are not currently approved treatments for depression, but the clinical use of ketamine is increasing in a variety of practice settings internationally.

Journal

CNS DrugsSpringer Journals

Published: May 7, 2018

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off