Antibacterial defenses and palatability of shallow-water Antarctic sponges

Antibacterial defenses and palatability of shallow-water Antarctic sponges Marine sponges are exposed to predation as well as to a wide array of potentially harmful microorganisms, and therefore they often possess chemical activity against putative predators and/or pathogens. Some crude extracts from sponges are effective in avoiding microbial colonization or potential infections, and in protecting them against predation. Here, the antibacterial activity of 18 sponge species of Antarctic shallow-waters was tested against four Antarctic and four human pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, all sponge extracts were tested for feeding repellence against the seastar Odontaster validus, one of the main predators living in those habitats. All the sponges showed antibacterial activity against at least one bacterial isolate, although not all of them were active against pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effect against sympatric bacteria was stronger than to pathogenic bacteria. In contrast, feeding deterrence was low, with similar activities in both hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts. Only four sponges (Myxilla lyssostyla, Phorbas areolatus, Polymastia invaginata and Iophon sp.), presented repellent chemical defenses. Therefore, we conclude that chemical defenses are widespread in Antarctic shallow-water sponges, and in fact, these sponges are better protected against bacteria than against the seastar predator. We conclude that Antarctic sponges represent a valuable source of biological active compounds with pharmacological and potential ecological relevance. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Hydrobiologia Springer Journals

Antibacterial defenses and palatability of shallow-water Antarctic sponges

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Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer International Publishing AG
Subject
Life Sciences; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Ecology; Zoology
ISSN
0018-8158
eISSN
1573-5117
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10750-017-3346-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Marine sponges are exposed to predation as well as to a wide array of potentially harmful microorganisms, and therefore they often possess chemical activity against putative predators and/or pathogens. Some crude extracts from sponges are effective in avoiding microbial colonization or potential infections, and in protecting them against predation. Here, the antibacterial activity of 18 sponge species of Antarctic shallow-waters was tested against four Antarctic and four human pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, all sponge extracts were tested for feeding repellence against the seastar Odontaster validus, one of the main predators living in those habitats. All the sponges showed antibacterial activity against at least one bacterial isolate, although not all of them were active against pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effect against sympatric bacteria was stronger than to pathogenic bacteria. In contrast, feeding deterrence was low, with similar activities in both hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts. Only four sponges (Myxilla lyssostyla, Phorbas areolatus, Polymastia invaginata and Iophon sp.), presented repellent chemical defenses. Therefore, we conclude that chemical defenses are widespread in Antarctic shallow-water sponges, and in fact, these sponges are better protected against bacteria than against the seastar predator. We conclude that Antarctic sponges represent a valuable source of biological active compounds with pharmacological and potential ecological relevance.

Journal

HydrobiologiaSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 16, 2017

References

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