Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Gingerol on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Gingerol on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells by... Gingerol was the main functional substance of Zingiberaceous plant which has been known as traditional medicine for thousands of years. The purpose of this experiment was to explore anti-inflammatory effects of gingerol and study the possible mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW246.7 cells. The cells were treated with 10 μg/mL LPS and 300, 200, 100, and 50 μg/mL gingerol for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of gingerol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zoliumbromide (MTT) method. Nitric oxide (NO) production was observed using Griess assays. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 have been analyzed by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-induced RAW246.7 cells. Nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins have been assessed by western blot assays. The determination of MTT showed that cell viability was not significantly affected by up to 300 μg/mL gingerol. Compared with LPS group, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL gingerol can inhibit the production of NO and the inhibitory rate was 10.4, 29.1, 58.9, and 62.4%, respectively. The results indicated gingerol existed anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, gingerol also observably inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 (p < 0.01) expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner. At the genetic level, after the intervention of gingerol, mRNA transcriptions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, and IL-1β were all decreased. The protein expressions of iNOS, NF-κB, p-p65, and p-IκB were significantly increased in LPS-induced cells, while these changes were reversed by the treatment with gingerol. This study suggested that gingerol exerts its anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-induced macrophages which can inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Inflammation Springer Journals

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Gingerol on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Medicine & Public Health; Rheumatology; Internal Medicine; Pharmacology/Toxicology; Pathology
ISSN
0360-3997
eISSN
1573-2576
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10753-018-0737-3
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Gingerol was the main functional substance of Zingiberaceous plant which has been known as traditional medicine for thousands of years. The purpose of this experiment was to explore anti-inflammatory effects of gingerol and study the possible mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW246.7 cells. The cells were treated with 10 μg/mL LPS and 300, 200, 100, and 50 μg/mL gingerol for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of gingerol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zoliumbromide (MTT) method. Nitric oxide (NO) production was observed using Griess assays. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 have been analyzed by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-induced RAW246.7 cells. Nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins have been assessed by western blot assays. The determination of MTT showed that cell viability was not significantly affected by up to 300 μg/mL gingerol. Compared with LPS group, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL gingerol can inhibit the production of NO and the inhibitory rate was 10.4, 29.1, 58.9, and 62.4%, respectively. The results indicated gingerol existed anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, gingerol also observably inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 (p < 0.01) expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner. At the genetic level, after the intervention of gingerol, mRNA transcriptions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, and IL-1β were all decreased. The protein expressions of iNOS, NF-κB, p-p65, and p-IκB were significantly increased in LPS-induced cells, while these changes were reversed by the treatment with gingerol. This study suggested that gingerol exerts its anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-induced macrophages which can inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Journal

InflammationSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 5, 2018

References

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