DRUG SYNTHESIS METHODS
AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
ANISOTROPIC IRON-OXIDE NANOPARTICLES
FOR DIAGNOSTIC MRI: SYNTHESIS
AND CONTRAST PROPERTIES
A. A. Nikitin,
M. A. Khramtsov,
A. G. Savchenko,
M. A. Abakumov,
and A. G. Mazhuga
Translated from Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 36 – 40, April, 2018.
Original article submitted November 24, 2017.
The scientific and technical literature addressing the synthesis of anisotropic iron-oxide nanoparticles of vari-
ous shapes (cubic, rod-like, clustered, etc.) sized from 10 to 100 nm and their application for diagnostic mag-
netic resonance imaging (MRI) of tissues and organs is analyzed. The analysis indicates that the nanoparticle
shape, size, and surface chemistry affect considerably relaxation parameters T
. Thus, cubic iron-oxide
nanoparticles had the greatest T
values. Furthermore, rod-like and octapodal nanoparticles also exhibit rather
values so that they can be used as contrast agents for diagnostic MRI.
Keywords: nanoparticles, iron-oxide nanoparticles, magnetite, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, contrast
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of iron oxides (e.g.,
magnetite or maghemite) are an important class of nano
structured materials that are widely used in various areas of
science and technology [1 – 4].
Iron-oxide MNPs with aspherical shapes exhibit more at
tractive anisotropic magnetic properties than semiconductors
and metallic nanocrystals , thereby being of special inter
est for biomedical applications.
MNPs of this type were proposed in series of publica
tions for treating cancer with hyperthermia and for transport
and targeted delivery of drugs [6 – 8]. Examples of MNPs
used as mediators for remote control of biochemical reac
tions are known [9, 10]. Use of MNPs as contrast agents for
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) deserves special atten
MRI is a powerful tool for medical diagnostic imaging of
internal tissues and organs. This method gives high spatial
and temporal resolution that enables separate cells to be
tracked under natural conditions. Furthermore, it is a
noninvasive method. Although MRI is a rather effective di
agnostic tool, improved image quality through the use of
contrast agents that can change the proton relaxation time is
preferred in practice. Superparamagnetic iron-oxide
nanoparticles are a type of contrast agent that is used clini
cally. They improve contrast by shortening the proton trans
verse relaxation time and producing negative contrast, i.e.,
dark spots in the image. Maghemite and magnetite are two of
the most common materials for improving contrast in inter
nal tissues and organs.
Many synthetic approaches to MNPs of various elemen
tal and phase compositions, including iron-oxide nanopartic
les such as magnetite Fe
, maghemite g-Fe
pure Fe and Co metal nanoparticles , ferrites MgFe
, and CoFe
, etc. and various alloys have
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, Vol. 52, No. 3, June, 2018 (Russian Original Vol. 52, No. 3, March, 2018)
0091-150X/18/5203-0231 © 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
National University of Science and Technology MISIS (Moscow Institute
of Steel and Alloys), 4 Leninskii Prosp., Moscow, 119991 Russia.
Department of Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
1/3 Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 Russia.
N. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1
Ostrovityanova, Moscow, 119997 Russia.
D. I. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 9
Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125047 Russia.