Sex Roles [sers] pp1011-sers-474430 October 27, 2003 21:40 Style ﬁle version June 3rd, 2002
Sex Roles, Vol. 49, Nos. 11/12, December 2003 (
Androgyny, Gender Role Behavior, and Emotional
Intelligence Among College Students and Their Parents
Denise D. Guastello
and Stephen J. Guastello
Androgyny, gender role behavior, and emotional intelligence were measured in 576 students
and their parents to examine the extent to which these variables exhibited generational effects
or consistencies within families. Chi-square analyses indicated that sons were more androgy-
nous in personality than their fathers, but that there was no signiﬁcant difference in androgyny
between daughters and mothers. The men also showed an increase in androgynous behavior
across generations, whereas the women showed an increase in masculine gender-typed behav-
ior and a decrease in feminine gender-typed behavior. ANOVA revealed that fathers scored
signiﬁcantly lower on emotional intelligence than mothers and students. Signiﬁcant correla-
tions on emotional intelligence for mothers and their respective students indicated a strong
inﬂuence on this construct; no such relationship was found between students and fathers. The
strongest correlations in masculine and feminine personality and behavior were obtained for
mothers and daughters. It was also hypothesized that androgyny would predict higher emo-
tional intelligence; multiple regression supported this hypothesis for students, mothers, and
KEY WORDS: androgyny; gender role; emotional intelligence; family.
The nature and scope of the “generation gap” in
contemporary issues was an important concern to psy-
chologists in the 1970s (Weinstock & Lerner, 1972).
The gap was more pronounced between college stu-
dents and their parents than it was when noncollege
and working class populations were studied (Lerner,
Schroeder, Rewitzer, & Weinstock, 1972). However,
Lerner, Karson, Meisels, and Knapp (1975) found that
parents and students perceived their attitudinal dis-
crepancy on a range of issues (e.g., morality of war,
birth control and abortion, marijuana and LSD, racial
and sexual equality) to be greater than the actual gap.
More than two decades later, Guastello and
Peissig (1998) revealed that a generation gap still
existed between college students and their parents.
Speciﬁcally, parents were found to be signiﬁcantly
Department of Psychology, Carroll College, East Avenue,
Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Department
of Psychology, Carroll College, 100 N. East Avenue, Waukesha,
Wisconsin 53186; e-mail: email@example.com.
more authoritarian than students, fathers signiﬁcantly
less environmentally concerned than students and
mothers, and students signiﬁcantly more cynical than
parents. At the same time, however, there were pos-
itive correlations between the students’ and parents’
levels of authoritarianism, and between students’ and
fathers’ levels of environmentalism, which indicates
familial consistency with regard to these two con-
The concept of a perceived or actual generation
gap continues to interest social scientists and the gen-
eral public alike. In this study we explored attitudinal
discrepancy and familial consistency in a new arena.
The three constructs of contemporary relevance in-
cluded in this study were androgyny, gender role be-
havior, and emotional intelligence. Their deﬁnitions
and related research ﬁndings follow.
The roots of the androgyny concept can be
traced back to ancient Greek literature, according to
2003 Plenum Publishing Corporation