ECONOMICS AND MARKET
ANALYSIS OF THE STATUS AND PROSPECTS
FOR THE COMMERCIAL USE OF FIBER-REINFORCED
A. P. Garshin,
V. I. Kulik,
and A. S. Nilov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 43 – 52, February, 2012.
Original article submitted November 10, 2011.
This article presents a broad survey and analysis of the main trends in the international market in regard to the
manufacturing technologies, areas of application, and levels of demand for structural ceramics with an SiC
matrix that has been reinforced with carbon fibers.
Keywords: ceramic composite materials (CCMs), international market for CCM products, SiC matrix, sili
con-carbide and carbon reinforcing fibers, and the CVI, LPI, and LSI methods of producing CCMs.
Advanced ceramics constitute a relatively new class of
materials. Thus, in terms of both monetary value and vol-
ume, the scale of production of advanced ceramics is still
considerably smaller than for traditional metallic and poly-
meric materials. At the same time, the production of ad-
vanced ceramics is growing at a much higher rate (from 15 to
25% per year) than the production of steel, aluminum, and
other metals. The world market for products made of ceram
ics in 2010 was estimated to be 60 billion U. S. dollars .
Of this amount, 25 – 26% went into machine construction
, and 87% of the ceramics used in this area were mono
lithic ceramics .
The various types of monolithic ceramics (SiC, Si
, TiC, HfC, ZrO
, siliconized graphite,
etc.) have a wide range of physico-mechanical and
thermophysical characteristics. The most important of these
are hardness and, thus, high resistance to mechanical wear,
chemical stability and heat resistance, and a relatively low
coefficient of linear expansion (CLE). The fact that these ce
ramics have these properties in large part accounts for the in
creased attention that structural ceramics are attracting and is
determining their present and future areas of application —
mainly in products and machines that are subjected to abra
sive wear, chemical attack, and high temperatures during ser-
The above notwithstanding, monolithic structural ceram-
ics still have certain shortcomings which significantly re-
strict or prevent their use in certain types of products. Their
main deficiencies are their low tensile strength, brittleness,
and low resistance to mechanical and thermal shock.
Figure 1 shows the microstructure of a monolithic SiC
ceramic obtained by reaction sintering . The given type of
SiC ceramic typically undergoes brittle fracture when sub
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 1, May, 2012
1083-4877/12/05301-0062 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Baltiyskii State Technical University “VOENMEKh”, St. Peters
”Kerakom” Company, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. Typical structure of a monolithic SiC ceramic obtained by
the method of reaction sintering : gray sections — silicon carbide
crystals that have grown inside the monolithic skeleton; white po
lygonal sections — free silicon; fine black point inclusions —
micropores or cleavage facets on the surface of the microsection.