The database of the world gene pool of wheat was scanned by pedigree and the participation of genetic material from T. timopheevii in the creation of 3088 varieties of common wheat was established. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the propagation of these varieties was studied. Using the analysis of pedigrees, a diversity of T. timopheevii donors was studied. The specificity of donors of the genetic material T. timopheevii for the regions of wheat breeding was established. The main source of resistance genes for most varieties is accession D-357-1 from the Georgian variety-population of Zanduri. This significantly reduces the diversity of the genetic material of T. timopheevii used in wheat breeding. In 369 varieties and 184 lines, the genes for resistance to pathogens from T. timopheevii were identified. The genes of T. timopheevii are distributed mainly in winter varieties, as well as spring varieties sown in autumn. The value of donors as sources of T. timopheevii genes is ambiguous, despite the fact that most of them come from the same D-357-1 accession. The Sr36 gene is most commonly found in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia; it was transferred from the Wisconsin-245 line through Arthur or TP-114-1965a. The Pm6 gene is distributed in Western Europe; it was transferred from the pre-breeding line Wisconsin 245/5*Cappelle-Desprez//Hybrid- 46/Cappelle Desprez. The gene Lr18 is more common in the United States; it was transmitted by the Blueboy or Vogel 5 varieties from the Coker-55-9 line. The extremely limited set of genes for resistance to pathogens from T. timopheevii used in commercial varieties and the specificity of their geographical distribution are possibly associated with the uniqueness of the G subgenome and plasmon in this species, its low potential for plasticity, and tolerance to drought. In addition, the imperfection of the methods of pre-breeding and recombination breeding prevents the elimination in translocation of close linkage of target genes with undesirable ones.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 12, 2018
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