Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) is a novel virus that has been found widely distributed in the swine population in recent years. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much about the molecular evolution of TTSuV1. In this study, synonymous codon usage patterns and the key determinants in the coding region of 29 available complete TTSuV1 genome sequences were examined. By calculating the nucleotide content and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of TTSuV1 coding sequences, we found that the preferentially used codons were mostly those ending with A or C nucleotides; less-used codons were mostly codons ending with U or G nucleotides, and these were mainly affected by composition constraints. Although there was a variation in codon usage bias among different TTSuV1 genomes, the codon usage bias and GC content in the TTSuV1 coding region was lower, which was mainly determined by the base composition in the third codon position and the effective number of codons (ENC) value. Moreover, the results of correspondence analysis (COA) indicated that the codon usage patterns of TTSuV1 isolated from different countries varied greatly and had significant differences. In addition, Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and an ENC plot revealed that apart from mutation pressure, which was critical in determining the codon usage pattern, other factors were involved in shaping the evolution of codon usage bias in TTSuV1, such as natural selection. Those results suggested that synonymous codon usage patterns of TTSuV1 genomes were the result of interaction between mutation pressure and natural selection. The information from this study not only provides important insights into the synonymous codon usage pattern of TTSuV1, but also helps to identify the main factors affecting codon usage by this virus.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 1, 2013
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