ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 425–430. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2010.
Original Russian Text © N.N. Ryzhova, E.V. Martirosyan, E.Z. Kochieva, 2010, published in Genetika, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 481–487.
Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs)
are tandem DNA repeats of one to six nucleotides.
SSRs are widely distributed in plant genomes, both in
heterochromatin and euchromatin regions (exons,
introns, and intergenic sequences) . The number of
the repeat units within microsatellite locus can be
highly variable even in closely related genotypes .
Due to high variability, codominant inheritance, and
relative simplicity of detection, analysis of allele poly
morphism of SSR loci is widely used for the investiga
tion of intraspecific genetic diversity as well as for
genotyping of the cultivated plant varieties and con
trolling their biotypic composition [3–10].
High density and random distribution of microsat
ellite sequences across the genome make SSR loci
ideal genetic markers for the saturation of molecular
genetic maps, as well as for the elaboration of the diag
nostic markers of agronomic valuable traits [11–14].
Microsatellite markers are widely used for population
analysis, as well as for evaluation of cultivar and
intogressive hybridization [10, 15–17].
Potato microsatellites were originally developed by
Veilleux et al. , and were based on nucleotide
sequences deposit in public datasets. More
recently, genomic libraries were constructed.
Screening of these libraries provided isolation of
novel SSRs [19, 20]. Polymorphism of the isolated
SSR loci of potato was examined in a number of
studies. At present, in connection with the
genome sequencing project, more than 16514 mic
rosatellites have been identified (http://solan
However, only 156 out of these microsatellites
were characterized as SSR markers (http://
more, it is known that for different sets of potato culti
vars, the degree of informativeness and discriminating
ability of one and the same SSR marker can be differ
ent [10, 20, 21].
High effectiveness of SSR markers for the analysis
of intraspecific polymorphism of
, as well
as for the genotyping of its cultivars was confirmed in
a number of studies [19–23]. Specifically, comparative
evaluation of the discriminating ability of three differ
ent types of markers (AFLP, RAPD, and SSR) showed
that about 91% of the SSR loci examined were poly
morphic. At the same time, the level of the cultivar
polymorphism identified using RAPD and AFLP
analyses, was lower . It should be noted in this
respect that effective genotyping of the cultivars of dif
ferent origin with the help of multilocus marker sys
tems (RAPD and AFLP), as well as using SSR analy
sis, definitely requires determination of the set of most
informative primers and loci. This is because in differ
ent countries initial genetic material, used for the con
struction of modern potato cultivars, can be different.
Under these circumstances, very often it happens that
SSR markers recommended for genotyping of certain
set of cultivars appear to be not so effective for identi
fication of other cultivars [14, 23].
Thus, the present study was focused on microsatel
lite SSR analysis of polymorphism in potato
cultivars of Russian breeding. Additionally,
most informative SSR loci were selected, and their
Analysis of Microsatellite Locus Polymorphism in Potato
) Cultivars of Russian Breeding
N. N. Ryzhova, E. V. Martirosyan, and E. Z. Kochieva
Bioengineering Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312 Russia;
Received May 6, 2009
—Polymorphism of microsatellite loci of the nuclear genome was examined in 29 cultivars and
accessions of wild potato (
). Nine SSR markers,
most informative (PIC = 0.61–0.92) for genotyping of the cultivars of Russian breeding were selected. Poly
morphism of the selected SSR loci was characterized, and prevailing, as well as unique SSR allele phenotypes
were described. A total of 87 allele phenotypes were identified. The highest number of allele phenotypes was
detected for the
(12) loci. The least numbers of allele phenotypes
were typical of the
(6) loci. Based on the microsatellite loci analyzed, for each
of the cultivars examined, its allele formula was established. The latter can be uses as the cultivar molecular
genetic passport. Diagnostic sets of most informative loci (SSR markers), enabling identification of the gen
otypes of all potato cultivars of Russian breeding examined, were determined.