Ninety-four lines of Triticum dicoccum isolated from 86 wheat accessions from Vavilov All-Russia Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR, Russia) and INRA (Clermont-Ferrand, France) germ-plasm collections were studied using C-banding technique. Visual comparison of karyotypes of different accessions was performed to establish genetic relationships and evaluate features inherent for ecological-geographical groups. The level of C-banding polymorphism in the whole sample of tetraploid emmer proved to be relatively low. The diversity within groups was higher than the differences between them. The material studied contained 39 lines carrying 16 different types of chromosomal rearrangements including single and multiple translocations and inversions. The level of translocation polymorphism was comparable with that detected earlier for polyploid wheat species. The frequencies of individual translocation types varied from 18 (T7A:5B) to 1 (nine types). Analysis of the distribution of the most frequent translocations 7A:5B suggested that it has significant adaptive value on the territory of Europe. Similarity of the C-banding patterns of European emmer and the accessions with the same translocation of the Asian origin points to their possible common origin. The occurrence of the same translocation in several T. dicoccoides accessions from Syria and Lebanon may indicate that such forms of wild emmer could have taken part in the origin of cultivate emmer from Western Europe. Similarity of the C-banding patterns of some chromosomes of European emmer and spelt could serve as an indirect evidence of their close genetic relationships.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 15, 2007
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