ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 11, pp. 1271–1285. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2007.
Original Russian Text © O.S. Dedkova, E.D. Badaeva, O.P. Mitrofanova, E.N. Bilinskaya, V.A. Pukhalskiy, 2007, published in Genetika, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 11, pp. 1517–1533.
Schuebl is a tetraploid wheat with the BBAA genome
. It is considered as a primitive wheat form from the
group of emmer wheats. Threshing of
duces individual spikelets, while kernels remain cov-
ered. Genetic and morphological evidence indicates
that cultivated emmer stems from wild local Near East
(Koern ex Aschers. et. Graebn.)
Schweinf. (wild emmer) via mutations from brittle to
non-brittle ear, controlled by two or three complemen-
tary recessive genes . On the basis of the geographi-
cal ranges and morphoecological traits,
classiﬁed into four subspecies: (1) subsp.
Vav. (Ethiopean emmer); (2) subsp.
(Eastern emmer); (3) subsp.
emmer); and (4) subsp.
can emmer) .
is a plant cultivated from ancient
times: it was among the eight founder crops of the
Neolith, with which crop farming began in the Near
East . Domestication of emmer was one of the key
events of the early agriculture. According to the arche-
ological evidence, cultivated emmer appeared in Levant
(present-day Syria and Lebanon) in the early pre-pot-
tery Neolith B, dating back to 9500–7500 years BC .
To the beginning of the 7th millenium BC, it has spread
throughout Levant and adjacent regions of Israel, north-
ern Syria, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and south-
western Iran. In the 6th millennium BC, cultivated
emmer was introduced from highlands of the Fertile
Crescent to the plains of Mesopotamia and western
Anatolia, from which it spread to the Mediterranean
basin and Europe . In the 4th millennium BC, Sum-
erians have brought emmer to Egypt, Central Asia, and
northwestern India. In the Indian subcontinent, emmer
and barley were the key crops from which the Neolith
agriculture began even before the development of the
Indus valley civilization [7, 8]. It has been suggested
that emmer was brought to southern India by sea from
northeastern Africa . In all of the regions listed
above, cultivated emmer remained the main crop dur-
ing 7 millenniums, up to the second half of the 1st mil-
lennium BC, when it was substituted by the easy-
threshed tetraploid form of
Desf. In Ethiopia
Analysis of Intraspecific Diversity
of Cultivated Emmer
Using C-Banding Technique
O. S. Dedkova
, E. D. Badaeva
, O. P. Mitrofanova
E. N. Bilinskaya
, and V. A. Pukhalskiy
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
State Scientiﬁc Center of Russian Federation, Vavilov All-Russia Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR),
St. Petersburg, 190000 Russia
Received May 22, 2007
—Ninety-four lines of
isolated from 86 wheat accessions from Vavilov All-Russia
Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR, Russia) and INRA (Clermont-Ferrand, France) germ-plasm collec-
tions were studied using C-banding technique. Visual comparison of karyotypes of different accessions was per-
formed to establish genetic relationships and evaluate features inherent for ecological–geographical groups.
The level of C-banding polymorphism in the whole sample of tetraploid emmer proved to be relatively low. The
diversity within groups was higher than the differences between them. The material studied contained 39 lines
carrying 16 different types of chromosomal rearrangements including single and multiple translocations and
inversions. The level of translocation polymorphism was comparable with that detected earlier for polyploid
wheat species. The frequencies of individual translocation types varied from 18 (T7A:5B) to 1 (nine types).
Analysis of the distribution of the most frequent translocations 7A:5B suggested that it has signiﬁcant adaptive
value on the territory of Europe. Similarity of the C-banding patterns of European emmer and the accessions
with the same translocation of the Asian origin points to their possible common origin. The occurrence of the
same translocation in several
accessions from Syria and Lebanon may indicate that such forms
of wild emmer could have taken part in the origin of cultivate emmer from Western Europe. Similarity of the
C-banding patterns of some chromosomes of European emmer and spelt could serve as an indirect evidence of
their close genetic relationships.