1022-7954/04/4007- © 2004
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 40, No. 7, 2004, pp. 710–716. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 40, No. 7, 2004, pp. 877–884.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Artyukova, Kholina, Kozyrenko, Zhuravlev.
The development of a conservation strategy for rare
plant species requires maximum available information
on the level of genetic variation and population subdi-
vision in these species. All measures aimed at the rein-
troduction of the species and maintenance of the opti-
mal population number must imply restoration of the
allelic composition and genetic structure of each popu-
lation. If these issues are not taken into consideration,
recombinations between the populations of different
origin occurring upon seed or plant transplantation,
would lead to the so-called outbreeding depression, i.e.,
a disruption of local adaptations and the decreased via-
bility of the plantations created [1–3].
Jurtz. is a herbaceous peren-
nial plant, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is a rare
species with extremely limited range, local endemic of
the western shore of Khanka Lake (Primorye).
is entered into the local register of rare
species  and the Red Book of Primorskii krai .
This ornamental plant represents one of the key compo-
nents of the unique coenoses of Khanka Lake . At
present, intensive human activity results in dramatic
declination of the species number, to the point of the
population extinction in some habitats. Preliminary
estimates of genetic variation in
from isoenzyme studies revealed the polymorphism
level, which was relatively high for an endemic species.
At the same time, the populations located at the oppo-
site parts of the species range demonstrated low level of
differentiation . This is somewhat unusual for a rare
species existing in the form of small isolated popula-
tions. In this situation, further studies utilizing other
methods of the analysis are necessary.
In recent years, genetic variation and the levels of
intra- and interspeciﬁc differentiation have been suc-
cessfully studied using the method of DNA analysis by
use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with random
primers, RAPD analysis [2, 8–11]. Despite of the exist-
ing limitations (dominant mode of inheritance of
RAPD loci), the advantages of the method are quite evi-
dent. RAPD analysis detects polymorphic states within
the entire genome and provides a substantial number of
markers, which is essential for the elucidation of the
relationships between the populations and species in
plants. The performance of RAPD analysis requires
small amounts of DNA, which is extremely important
in case of rare species.
The present study was focused on determining the
level of genetic variation and the degree of differentia-
tion in two populations of
most geographically distant sites of the range by use of
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was based on the analysis of the
Jurtz. individual plants from two populations
located at the opposite sites of the range, at the distance
of 50 km. The samples were obtained from randomly
chosen plants located about 100 m apart. The ﬁrst pop-
ulation was situated in the vicinity of settlement Turii
Rog, at the shore of Khanka Lake (sample P1, 15 indi-
viduals). The second population belonged to the terri-
tory of the Khankaiskii preserve and was located in the
Analysis of Genetic Variation in Rare Endemic Species
Jurtz. (Fabaceae) Using RAPD Markers
E. V. Artyukova, A. B. Kholina, M. M. Kozyrenko, and Yu. N. Zhuravlev
Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690022 Russia;
fax: (4232) 31-01-93; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received July 14, 2003
—The method of polymerase chain reaction with random primers (RAPD) was used to assess genetic
variation and population differentiation in the rare endemic plant
DNA samples from plants of two isolated populations were compared at 133 loci detected by use of ten primers.
Both populations examined were characterized by high polymorphism levels (
= 1.92 and
= 1.88, respectively). They were also statistically signiﬁcantly different in the frequencies of most of
the amplicons. For each of the plants, unique multilocus RAPD phenotype was established using 17 to 20
RAPD markers. Diagnostic markers were not revealed. The populations were poorly differentiated. On average,
the between-population component accounted for about 8% of the variation, while 92% of the variation was
detected within populations. High variation along with the low degree of differentiation characteristic of two
most geographically remote populations of
can have several explanations, among which a poly-
ploid origin of the species seems to be most important.