Russian Physics Journal, Vol. 61, No. 2, June, 2018 (Russian Original No. 2, February, 2018)
AN OVERVIEW OF PROMISING GRADES OF TOOL MATERIALS
BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF THEIR PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL
E. A. Kudryashov, I. M. Smirnov, D. V. Grishin, and N. A. Khizhnyak UDC 621.9
The work is aimed at selecting a promising grade of a tool material, whose physical-mechanical characteristics
would allow using it for processing the surfaces of discontinuous parts in the presence of shock loads.
An analysis of the physical-mechanical characteristics of most common tool materials is performed and the
data on a possible provision of the metal-working processes with promising composite grades are presented.
Keywords: tooling material, physical-mechanical properties, operation under shock loading.
In many spheres of Russian mechanical engineering the machine parts of complicated profile or design are ever
increasingly fabricated from the workpieces made of materials with special properties (improved mechanical strength,
high thermal stability, etc.) and from combined workpieces whose machined surfaces are made from two or more
heterogeneous structural materials such as for instance: steel and pig irons in combination with the materials from light
metals and plastics reinforced with glass fibers, combined laminated materials, and the like.
In addition to special properties, the workpiece surfaces possess minor openings, grooves, open slots, splines,
etc., which result in cutting discontinuities. The presence of discontinuous elements requires that a careful approach be
developed to the selection of a promising grade of a tooling material for turning, boring and other operations in the case
where the precision requirements are no worse than the 7-th quality class and surface roughness is no worse than
Ra = 1.25 µm [1–4].
A perfect example is an assembly unit (Fig. 1a) and its component parts: base (Fig. 1b) and ring collar (Fig. 1c)
put together in the intermediate assembly stage of building an armature structure placed into a molding machine to
manufacture a press-material shell on the outer contour of the assembly unit (Fig. 2).
The main technical data on the components are presented in Table 1.
Hard alloys are most common materials used in surface turning operations of varying design complexity. This
group also comprises tool materials manufactured by powder metallurgy from hard materials (primarily carbides) and
binder materials (cobalt), used to increase the cutting material strength under compression and bending common in the
case of impact loading, which develop during interrupted cutting or at the interfaces between materials forming the
processed surface. Hard alloys, despite the variety of their physical-mechanical properties, cannot however compete in
lifetime and cutting efficiency with grinding finish, which in turn is associated with such negative factors as burnt
places on the processed surface and its saturation with the particles of the abrasive wheel material (impregnation) and
with the formation of tensile stresses in the surface layer, which reduce the strength limit of the component.
There are also many contradictions in the recommendations reported in technical literature pertaining to the
application of the numerous grades of superhard tool materials – cubic boron nitride modifications (CBN – composite
trademark), polycrystalline diamonds (PCD), and cutting ceramic materials.
АО Scientific Research Engineering Institute, Balashikha, Moscow obl., Russia, e-mail: email@example.com;
firstname.lastname@example.org; d. email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org. Translated from Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh
Zavedenii, Fizika, No. 2, pp. 39–43, February, 2018. Original article submitted November 14, 2017.
1064-8887/18/6102-0248 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC