ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2010, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 393–397. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © S.N. Sannikov, I.V. Petrova, 2010, published in Ekologiya, 2010, No. 5, pp. 352–356.
Vast Holocene bogs in the forest zone of northern
Eurasia constitute a qualitatively new adaptive zone
for Scots pine (
L.) populations, which
have been spreading from their refugia with climatic
warming. According to the paradigm that was preva
lent in the 20th century (Kobranov, 1912; Abolin,
1915; Sukachev, 1934; Pravdin, 1964; Bobrov, 1978),
various morphs of the Scots pine in bogs are no more
than a modificational “soil ecotype” genetically iden
tical to that in the neighboring dryland populations.
However, our interdisciplinary paleobotanical, fac
torial–ecological, phenological, phenotypical, and
allozymic–genetic studies in the preforest–steppe
zone of Western Siberia allowed us to predict (Sanni
kov et al., 1976) and, later, describe and comprehen
sively analyze (Grishina, 1979,1985; Petrova et al.,
1989; Petrova and Sannikov, 1996, 2009; Sannikov and
Petrova, 2003) a distinct genetic boundary between
populations of dry meadows and adjacent
high bogs. Summarizing the results of these studies
and using the principles of scientific inference
(Bazhenov, 1978; Hesse, 1974), we propose the fol
lowing outline of a hypothetical–deductive theory of
genetic divergence between bog and dryland
populations during the Holocene epoch.
THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEA
We may proceed from the concept of regular helio
and geophysical cycles and the following three derived
(1) Cyclic variations of solar activity and geoastro
nomical and geophysical factors (including volcanic
activity) cause cycles of climatic factors, such as solar
radiation, air temperature and humidity, precipitation,
and hydrological processes, on Earth (Chizhevsky,
1978; Shugrin and Obut, 1986; Lang, 1994; Levi et al.,
(2) Various ecological types of bogs appeared and
developed in the forest zone of the northern hemi
sphere during relatively warm and humid interglacial
periods of the Pleistocene and during the Holocene
(Kats, 1971; P’yavchenko, 1985; Liss et al., 2001).
(3) The combinations of the environmental factors
that are the most important for plant dispersal and
growth (the soil or peat substrate and hydrological,
thermal, microclimatic, and biotic factors) and their
changes with time in bogs, especially oligotrophic high
peat bogs, are dramatically contrasting or alternative to
those in dry meadows (Walter, 1968; Vomperskii, 1968;
Veretennikov, 1985; Petrova and Sannikov, 1996).
An Outline of the Theory of the Genetic Divergence
of DryLand and Bog Populations of
S. N. Sannikov and I. V. Petrova
Botanical Garden, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
Received November 10, 2009
—The thesis of the genetic divergence of
L. populations that have spread to bogs from
the original dryland populations has been deduced from the concept of the cyclicity of helio and geophys
ical processes, derivative postulates on climatic cycles, formation of Holocene high bogs, contrasting differ
entiation between their environment and that of dry meadows, and the resultant changes in the vectors of
microevolutionary factors and strong reproductive isolation between these populations. Logical genetic, eco
logical–phenotypical, and geographic consequences of this theory have been verified by factual data and gen
eral laws known to date. The interpolational and predictive roles of the new theory are demonstrated.
: Scots pine, population, dry meadow, bog, environment gradients, reproductive isolation, micro
evolution factors, genetic divergence, theory.