Vapor pressure is a fundamental property of a pure substance. This property is the pressure of a compound’s vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phase (solid or liquid). When phase equilibrium condition is met, phase coexistence of a pure substance involves a continuum interplay of vaporization or sublimation to gas and condensation back to their liquid or solid form, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques are based on mass loss determination and are well suited for the study of such phenomena. In this work, it is shown that TGA method using a reference substance is a suitable technique for vapor pressure determination. This method is easy and fast because it involves a series of isothermal segments. In contrast to original Knudsen’s approach, where the use of high vacuum is mandatory, adopting the proposed method a given experimental setup is calibrated under ambient pressure conditions. The theoretical framework of this method is based on a generalization of Langmuir equation of free evaporation: The real strength of the proposed method is the ability to determine the vapor pressure independently of the molecular mass of the vapor. A demonstration of this method has been performed using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation of state to derive the working equation. This algorithm, however, is adaptive and admits the use of other equations of state. The results of a series of experiments with organic molecules indicate that the average difference of the measured and the literature vapor pressure amounts to about 5 %. Vapor pressure determined in this study spans from few mPa up to several kPa. Once the p versus T diagram is obtained, phase transition enthalpy can additionally be calculated from the data.
International Journal of Thermophysics – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2018
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