An improved quantum watermarking scheme using small-scale quantum circuits and color scrambling

An improved quantum watermarking scheme using small-scale quantum circuits and color scrambling In order to solve the problem of embedding the watermark into the quantum color image, in this paper, an improved scheme of using small-scale quantum circuits and color scrambling is proposed. Both color carrier image and color watermark image are represented using novel enhanced quantum representation. The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be $$2^{n+1}\times 2^{n+2}$$ 2 n + 1 × 2 n + 2 and $$2^{n}\times 2^{n}$$ 2 n × 2 n , respectively. At first, the color of pixels in watermark image is scrambled using the controlled rotation gates, and then, the scrambled watermark with $$2^n\times 2^n$$ 2 n × 2 n image size and 24-qubit gray scale is expanded to an image with $$2^{n+1}\times 2^{n+2}$$ 2 n + 1 × 2 n + 2 image size and 3-qubit gray scale. Finally, the expanded watermark image is embedded into the carrier image by the controlled-NOT gates. The extraction of watermark is the reverse process of embedding it into carrier image, which is achieved by applying operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results show that the proposed scheme is superior to other similar algorithms in terms of three items, visual quality, scrambling effect of watermark image, and noise resistibility. Quantum Information Processing Springer Journals

An improved quantum watermarking scheme using small-scale quantum circuits and color scrambling

Loading next page...
Springer US
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Physics; Quantum Information Technology, Spintronics; Quantum Computing; Data Structures, Cryptology and Information Theory; Quantum Physics; Mathematical Physics
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial