An experimental study on inclined coaxial jets using laser-induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry is presented here. The Reynolds numbers of the inner primary jet and outer secondary jet were Re = 2,500 and between Re = 500 and 2,000 (based on gap size), respectively, which corresponded to secondary-to-primary jet velocity ratios (VR) of VR = 0.5–2.0. The secondary-to-primary jet area ratio was 2.25, and 45° and 60° incline-angles were studied. Flow visualizations show that relatively independent inclined primary and secondary jet vortex roll-ups were formed at VR = 0.5. At VR = 1.0, regular pairings and mergings between primary and secondary jet vortex roll-ups led to large-scale entrainment of secondary jet and ambient fluids into the primary jet column and conferred a “serpentile”-shaped outline upon it. While the “serpentile”-shaped outline continued to exist at VR = 2.0, it was a result of stronger secondary jet inner vortex roll-ups which “pinched” the primary jet column regularly. These flow behaviours are observed to intensify with an increase in the incline-angle used. Velocity measurements demonstrate that inclined coaxial nozzles promoted vectoring of the primary jet momentum towards the longer nozzle lengths when velocity-ratio and/or incline-angle were increased. Lastly, peak velocity and higher turbulence intensity levels due to augmented vortical interactions are also detected along shorter nozzle lengths.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: May 15, 2011
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