Excellent activity and stability have been observed for a lactic acid-modified Hβ (LA-Hβ) zeolite in the synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes by Friedel–Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes. It is proposed that lactic acid treatment is appropriate for dealumination of Hβ zeolite, and results in a LA-Hβ zeolite with greater surface area, fewer weak acid sites, and more moderately-strong acid sites, as confirmed by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, and temperature-programmed desorption of NH3. Moreover, both electronic and steric effects of substituents on the aromatic ring of the aldehydes were found to be important in this reaction.
Research on Chemical Intermediates – Springer Journals
Published: May 11, 2012
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