Influenza viruses isolated from ducks are rarely able to infect chickens; it is therefore postulated that these viruses need to adapt in some way to be able to be transmitted to chickens in nature. Previous studies revealed that sialyl Lewis X (3′SLeX), which is fucosylated α2,3 sialoside, was predominantly detected on the epithelial cells of the chicken trachea, whereas this glycan structure is not found in the duck intestinal tract. To clarify the mechanisms of the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses between ducks and chickens, we compared the receptor specificity of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from these two species. Glycan-binding analysis of the recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) of a chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2), revealed a binding preference to α1,3 fucosylated sialosides. On the other hand, the HA of a duck influenza virus, A/duck/Mongolia/54/2001 (H5N2) (Dk/MNG), particularly bound to non-fucosylated α2,3 sialosides such as 3′-sialyllactosamine (3′SLacNAc). Computational analysis along with binding analysis of the mutant HAs revealed that this glycan-binding specificity of the HA was determined by amino acid residues at positions 222 and 227. Inconsistent with the glycan-binding specificity of the recombinant HA protein, virions of Dk/MNG bound to both 3′SLacNAc and 3′SLeX. Glycan-binding analysis in the presence of a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor revealed that the NA conferred binding to 3′SLeX to virions of Dk/MNG. The present results reveal the molecular basis of the interaction between fucosylated α2,3 sialosides and influenza viruses.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 1, 2016
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