ALUMINOSILICATE ENERGY- AND RESOURCE-SAVING
R. V. Zubashchenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 147 – 149, March 2011.
Original article submitted January 17, 2011.
The critical need to reduce the specific consumption of materials involved in the production of refractories is
demonstrated. The basic physico-chemical properties of newly developed energy- and resource-saving alumi
nosilicate refractory articles are presented.
Keywords: resource conservation, aluminosilicate articles, heat conduction, specific consumption of materi
als, furnace lining
A clear-cut imbalance between the capabilities of the nat-
ural resource potential and the existing system for utilization
of this potential is now apparent. Economic activity per-
formed on the basis of large-scale introduction of energy-
and resource-saving technologies must, therefore, be consid-
ered a key task in this area.
The contemporary extraction of different minerals (in-
cluding fuel and energy resources) is comparable with volca-
nic processes. Human beings utilize energy at a rate of
kW (the Sun emits 10
kW). Whereas in ancient times
human beings utilized 19 chemical elements, in the 17th cen
tury the comparable figure was 26, in the eighteenth century
28, in the nineteenth century 50, and at the start of the twenti
eth century 59 chemical elements, while today human beings
use all the elements that are encountered in Nature, and have
even created new elements .
The demand for natural resources is continually growing.
Already, every year more than 125 billion t of mineral mass
is brought up to the Earth’s surface and 10,000 km
are moved from one spot to another, 18,000,000 ha of forest
is cut down, and 50,000–70,000 km
of ground resources are
lost. The level of life and the level of civilization are deter
mined by the level of utilization of energy resources.
Whereas in the early 1980s, 10 billion t of conventional fuel
were consumed throughout the world, in the year 2000 the
comparable figure was twice as great and the human race’s
demand for energy will become increasingly greater over
time. The growth of the demand for electricity (even if inex
haustible and pure sources of energy are found) may bring
with it the risk of overheating of the surface of the Earth. Un
fortunately it must be stated that now, in the new century
Russia remains a wasteful country. The rate of energy con-
sumption of the Russian economy is three times that of the
economy of the world as a whole, seven times that of Japan,
and 4.5 times greater than that of the United States.
Intensive pollution of the environment has occurred in
recent decades, one consequence of which has been a wors-
ening of the quality of the atmosphere, water, etc. Neverthe-
less, a host of examples illustrating a rational approach to the
use of natural objects may be cited. Thus, at the start of the
twentieth century, 2.5 ton of coke and 4 ton of coal were re
quired to smelt 1 ton of pig iron. Now the same amount of
coke is sufficient for manufacturing 7 ton of metal.
The technology underlying the production of alumino
silicate articles is based on the use of clay minerals as well as
silicates of alumina (cyanite, andalusite, sillimanite) and of
hydrates of alumina (hydrargillite, boehmite, diaspore) .
As in the case of any source of mineral ore, the rock that con
tains these chemical compounds is an exhaustible source.
Rational utilization of this energy source, therefore, is a task
of extraordinary importance.
The use of highly efficient linings of heating plants in
different branches of industry plays an important role in the
conservation of natural resources (in particular, fuel and en
ergy resources). Lining is one of the basic structural elements
of furnaces, making it possible to implement high-tempera
ture processes in the furnace environment in the presence of
mechanical loads while preserving the geometric shape of
the working chamber and its mechanical and structural
strength over long periods of time. The lining of furnaces
represents a construction that, in most cases, consists of re
fractory and heat-insulating materials.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 2, July, 2011
1083-4877/11/05202-0143 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
ZAO PKF NK, Staryi Oskol, Belgorod District (Russia).