1022-7954/01/3708- $25.00 © 2001
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2001, pp. 894–898. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1075–1080.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Chebotar, Korzun, Sivolap.
Modern technologies of farming are based on the
use of high-value cultivars for high and stable yields.
One of the factors controlling these quality characteris-
tics in common wheat is plant height.
Plant height in common wheat is controlled by a set
of genes located on different chromosomes .
According to the McIntosh catalogue , 21 genes
have a major effect on plant height. They are designated
(reduced plant height) and are arbitrarily subdi-
vided into two groups depending on the reaction to the
exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) [3, 4]. The ﬁrst group
comprises GA-dependent dwarﬁng genes located on
chromosomes 2A , 2D , 5A , and 7B . The
second group includes GA-insensitive dwarﬁng genes
located on the short arms of chromosomes 4B and 4D
In breeding programs, much attention is paid to
combining reduced height with higher yields. The most
important group in this respect involves GA-insensitive
derived from the Norin 10 cultivar and
Saitama 27 allele derived from Saitama 27 [12, 13]
(modern designations are given in parentheses ).
A detailed study of wheat isogenic lines carrying
 showed that these genes
decrease plant height on average by 18% and positively
correlate with a signiﬁcant increase in plant fertility and
productivity. In the southern Europe, a negative corre-
lation between the
plant fertility leading to low yields was recorded [8, 15].
This phenomenon is due to high sensitivity of plants to
heat shock before heading . Under the climatic con-
ditions of the southern Ukraine, breeders searched for
alternative genes reducing plant height but not affecting
fertility. A gibberellin-dependent dwarﬁng gene
located on the short arm of chromosome 2D in common
wheat met these requirements. Plants carrying gene
was ﬁrst used by the Italian breeder Strampelli in
crosses between the Japanese cultivar Akakomugi
donor) with Italian cultivars aimed at producing
short-stemmed cultivars with earlier ﬂowering dates .
A tight linkage between the
gene and locus
located on chromosome 2D at a distance of
0.6 cM from the
gene has been recently shown
. The existence of the molecular marker
allowed us to analyze alleles at this locus in the world
collection of common wheat. Analysis of polymor-
phism at locus
in more than 850 cultivars of
common wheat [18, 19] showed that the 165-bp, 174-bp,
and 192-bp alleles prevailed. Most German, French,
and English cultivars carried the 174-bp allele. Culti-
vars produced in Mexico (CIMMYT) carried the 165-bp
allele; the 192-bp allele was characteristic of cultivars
grown in the south of Europe.
The presence of the 192-bp allele at locus
correlated with a decreased plant height (by 7–8 cm)
and had no pleiotropic effect on other agronomic char-
acters . The 174-bp allele was neutral with respect
to plant height, while the 165-bp allele correlated with
an increase in plant height by 3–4 cm and had no inﬂu-
ence on other agronomic characters. The difference in
plant height between the plants carrying the 192-bp
allele and those with the 165-bp allele at locus
was sometimes as large as 10–12 cm.
A number of rare alleles (194-, 195-, 196-, 197-,
201-, 202-, 204-, 205-, 207-, 210-, and 251-bp) were
revealed at locus
. The 197-bp allele was
found in 6% of the European common wheat cultivars.
Allele Distribution at Locus
Marking the Dwarfing Gene
in Common Wheat Cultivars
of Southern Ukraine
S. V. Chebotar
, V. N. Korzun
, and Yu. M. Sivolap
South Plant Biotechnology Center, Odessa, 65036 Ukraine; fax: (0482) 65-70-84; e-mail: email@example.com
Planta GMBH, Einbeck, 37555 Germany
Received August 4, 2000; in ﬁnal form, January 15, 2000
—The use of codominant microsatellite molecular markers allows one to study the inheritance and
distribution of alleles linked to important agronomic characters. A microsatellite locus
to a dwarﬁng gene
was analyzed in wheat cultivars and selection material of the Institute of Plant Breeding
and Genetics. PCR screening of common wheat cultivars produced in the southern Ukraine showed the preva-
lence of a 192-bp allele at locus
that indicates adaptive signiﬁcance of a corresponding allele of the
gene in the southern regions.