1062-3604/04/3504- © 2004
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2004, pp. 254–260. Translated from Ontogenez, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2004, pp. 314–320.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Toivonen, Nefedova, Sidorov, Yurovitskii.
A study of eye disease in salmon fry at ﬁsh hatcher-
ies of Karelia made it possible to establish the occur-
rence of typical cataract in the nuclear form. In the
salmon fry grown at the Kemskii and Vygskii hatcher-
ies, the vision was fully lost as a result of cataractogen-
esis in 35% of all ﬁsh.
The alimentary origin of the disease at the hatcher-
ies was demonstrated when the starting granular diet
was replaced by fresh liver and spleen and when vari-
ous vitamins and dry mil were added to the diet. In
these conditions, the frequency of cataractogenesis
decreased to 0.5–2.0%.
Since cataractogenesis in ﬁsh, other animals, and
man has kindred biochemical balance (oxidative dam-
age of lipids and proteins, destruction of lens ﬁber
membranes, and disturbed formation of high molecular
weight protein aggregates), ﬁsh are of real interest as an
object of study. We have already shown (Toivonen
, 2002) that quantitative changes of lipid fractions
take place and the cholesterol/phospholipids coefﬁcient
increases during cataractogenesis.
During development, the composition of lipids in
the ﬁsh tissues and organs undergoes constant changes.
The lipid metabolism lability is largely determined by
the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids, which is
extremely variable in ﬁsh and depends on many factors,
both external and internal. As compared to other
organs, the most intense lipid synthesis takes place in
the liver and the lipids are then transported to other tis-
sues by blood plasma lipoproteins. In this respect, stud-
ies of age-related changes of lipid metabolism in the
liver and of their inﬂuence of eye lens are of special
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Studies were carried out on one- and two-year
salmons grown at the Vygskii ﬁsh hatchery. The liver of
healthy and cataractous ﬁsh served as an object. The
ﬁsh were divided into three groups. The ﬁrst group,
, with normal transparent lenses was repre-
sented by the ﬁsh fed on fresh liver and spleen added
with vitamins and dry milk. The second group,
comprised the ﬁsh without visible signs of lens opacity
that were kept in the same water body and fed on the
same diet as the cataractous ﬁsh. The third group,
, included so-called “white-eyed” ﬁsh fed on the
standard granular diet.
For analysis of lipids
liver samples (500 mg from
each of 100 ﬁsh) were homogenized in a mixture of
chloroform and methanol (2 : 1 by volume) comple-
mented with 0.001% antioxidant ionol, brought to a
10-fold volume by a solvent, and stored in the cold until
analysis. Lipids were extracted as described by Folch
(1957). Total lipids were divided in fractions on
Silufol plates in a system of solvents containing petro-
leum ether : ethyl ether : acetic acid (9 : 10 : 2). Total
phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and cholesterol ethers
were quantitatively assayed by the hydroxamate
, 1972). Cholesterol was assayed
BIOCHEMISTRY OF DEVELOPMENT
Age-Related Features of Cataractogenesis in Salmon Fry. III.
Age-Related Dynamics of Liver Lipid Composition
L. V. Toivonen
, Z. A. Nefedova
, V. S. Sidorov
, and Yu. G. Yurovitskii
Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Morisa Toreza 44, St. Petersburg, 194223 Russia
Institute of Biology, Karel Scientiﬁc Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Pushkinskaya 11,
Petrozavodsk, 185610 Russia
Kol’tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 26, Moscow, 119991 Russia
E-mail: Lolita@iephb.ru; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received December 6, 2000; in ﬁnal form, May 24, 2001
—When studying the cataract pathogenesis in salmon fry, we found changes in the content of individ-
ual; phospholipid fractions and fatty acid composition in the liver of diseased and healthy ﬁsh. The age-related
changes correlated with the increased antioxidant activity and decreased liver content of malondialdehyde.
: cataractogenesis, liver, lipid metabolism, salmon fry.