ADVANCED REFRACTORY ARTICLES AND MATERIALS
FOR THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY
V. V. Primachenko,
V. V. Martynenko,
V. A. Ustichenko,
L. A. Babkina,
R. M. Fedoruk,
I. V. Khonchik,
L. K. Savina,
L. N. Zolotukhina,
and A. B. Kovalev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 59 – 63, November, 2007.
Original article submitted May 30, 2007.
Data on some novel kinds of refractory articles and materials developed and produced by the Berezhnoy
Ukrainian Research Institute for Refractories (Berezhnoy UkrNIIO) are presented. Corundum articles with
Sialon binder and unshaped materials of various kinds (ramming mixtures, dry mixtures, traditional and
low-cement refractory concretes) containing normal electrocorundum or refractory scrap instead of the costly
white electrocorundum are described.
Out-furnace treatment in ladles is often performed in
Ukraine with the use of bottom purging plugs the base of
which is a highly refractory central part with slots, which is
roasted at a high temperature. At UkrNIIO blow plugs of
different configuration (see Fig. 1) are produced by the
method of vibrocasting from granular mixtures. The institute
continues to conduct research directed at choosing optimum
compositions and shapes for the plugs. The initial compo-
nents for fabricating plugs are high-purity fused materials,
i.e., corundum, mullite, and spinel. Plugs of various sizes with
corundum-mullite, corundum-mullite-spinel, and corundum-
spinel compositions have been designed, produced, and tested
. A characteristic of blow plugs is presented in Table 1.
In world practice the most widely used variant is slot un
fired low-cement concrete bottom plugs based on plate-type
or fused corundum with additives (spinel, chromium oxide,
etc.) [2, 3]. In cooperation with a metallurgical plant the In
stitute has performed tests of fired plugs in comparison with
concrete corundum-spinel unfired ones in 90-ton ladles with
purging the steel in a furnace-ladle unit and degasser. Results
of the tests of fired corundum-mullite plugs of various
heights and of unfired corundum-spinel concrete plugs with
a height of 450 mm are presented in Table 2. The tests have
shown the advantages of the fired corundum-mullite plugs
over unfired corundum-spinel ones with respect to the endur
ance and the purging time and with respect to the stability of
the purging and reliability. Fired plugs were tested in 120-ton
ladles with treatment of the metal with argon in a furnace-
ladle unit and a degasser. Plugs with corundum-spinel com
position exhibited higher endurance and stability of purging
than corundum-mullite and corundum-mullite-spinel ones.
In order to obtain corundum-spinel plugs with optimum
parameters of properties we studied and tested the elemental
and grain compositions of mixtures and determined the
amounts and necessary fractions of corundum and spinel.
The works on the composition of plugs were conducted in
parallel with testing appropriate designs. A combined struc-
ture with different configurations over the height (a func-
tional part in the form of a truncated cone and a nonworking
part in the form of a truncated pyramid 150 mm high for con
trolling the wear) turned out to be an optimum design. The
structure ensures visual control of the plug and makes it pos
sible to stop its operation in time, when the hexahedron ap
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 6, 2007
1083-4877/07/4806-0421 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Berezhnoy Ukrainian Research Institute for Refractories, Ukraine.
Fig. 1. Purging plugs: 1, cone-shaped; 2, combined.