MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT
ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR FABRICATION AND REPAIR
OF THE BOTTOM LINING OF OPEN-HEARTH
AND ELECTRIC-ARC FURNACES: A 50 YEARS’ HISTORY
Yu. A. Dmitrienko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 30 – 32, February, 2005.
Original article submitted November 2, 2004.
A brief survey of the history of development, production, and uses of advanced Martenite-type refractory ma
terials for repair and maintenance of the bottom lining of open-hearth and electric-arc furnaces is given.
The chronicle concerning the development of materials
for repairing the bottom lining of open-hearth furnaces dates
back to the land-lease times. The progress achieved by
American designers in the production and uses of unshaped
refractories — Basifrite, Magnifrite, Ramix, Thomasite, etc.
— was a stimulus for researcher in the Soviet Union to de-
velop analogous domestic materials.
The basic technology for a fast-sintered “metallurgical”
powder (coined Martenite) was developed at the All-Russia
Research Institute for Refractories (city of Kharkov) in
1945 – 1946. In 1946, at the Chasov-Yarskii refractory plant,
an industrial-scale pilot batch of Martenite powder was made
by a technology combining pelletization and sintering of
ground materials . The recommended composition of the
mixture for preparation of the Martenite powder was (with
allowance for the standard requirement of 68 – 70%
periclase and 10 – 15% calcium ferrites in the end product),
%: MgO, about 70; CaO, about 15; Fe
, about 10, and
, not higher than 5. The raw materials used were: caustic
(calcined) magnesite or finely ground magnesite powder,
limestone, iron ore, and phosphorite.
The starting materials were co-ground in a tube mill, and
the mixture was pelletized and sintered using a tunnel fur
nace. The sintered pellets were crushed into fractions in size
smaller than 12 mm. The powder thus obtained was of com
position, wt.%: MgO, 62.3 – 72.2; CaO, 11.1 – 14.4; Fe
9.0 – 11.9; SiO
, 3.5 – 5.0; Al
, 0.9 – 3.3, and P
It was shown in  that, using a synthetic material con-
taining a low-melting phase (10 – 20% calcium ferrites or
brownmillerite), one can provide conditions for the fast
sintering of the furnace bottom without detriment to its resis-
tance to attack by molten metal and slag.
In April 1946, a decision of the Ministry of Ferrous Me
tallurgy of the USSR was taken to start production of this
material. In 1953, a shop was organized at the Magnezit
Works for production of the Martenite-grade powders by a
technology that included the preparation of a slurry of caus
tic magnesite, dolomite, and siderite ore followed by the cal
cinations of the slurry in a rotary kiln. Over the starting and
adjustment period, more that 3000 tons of Martenite powder
have been produced ; batches of it were sent for testing at
the Serov, Chelyabinsk, and Zlatoust metallurgical works.
The Martenite powder was used to repair the bottom lining
of an open-hearth furnace, exploiting a layer-by-layer coat
ing technique. The method proved to be easy to handle; it
provided good sintering and allowed one to save hot repair
In 1960 – 1961, at a high-refractory materials laboratory
headed by V. A. Bron (Eastern Research and Design Institute
for Refractory Industry (VestIO), Ekaterinburg, Russia), the
properties of magnesite powders (available from the
Magnezit Works)  used for repair and production of the
bottom lining were studied. The grain composition of
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 46, No. 3, 2005
1083-4877/05/4603-0177 © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Kombinat Magnezit Joint-Stock Co., Satka, Chelyabinsk Region,