Acyl-lipid thioesterase1–4 from Arabidopsis thaliana form a novel family of fatty acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterases with divergent expression patterns and substrate specificities

Acyl-lipid thioesterase1–4 from Arabidopsis thaliana form a novel family of fatty acyl–acyl... Hydrolysis of fatty acyl thioester bonds by thioesterases to produce free fatty acids is important for dictating the diversity of lipid metabolites produced in plants. We have characterized a four-member family of fatty acyl thioesterases from Arabidopsis thaliana, which we have called acyl-lipid thioesterase1 (ALT1), ALT2, ALT3, and ALT4. The ALTs belong to the Hotdog fold superfamily of thioesterases. ALT-like genes are present in diverse plant taxa, including dicots, monocots, lycophytes, and microalgae. The four Arabidopsis ALT genes were found to have distinct gene expression profiles with respect to each other. ALT1 was expressed specifically in stem epidermal cells and flower petals. ALT2 was expressed specifically in root endodermal and peridermal cells as well as in stem lateral organ boundary cells. ALT3 was ubiquitously expressed in aerial and root tissues and at much higher levels than the other ALTs. ALT4 expression was restricted to anthers. All four proteins were localized in plastids via an N-terminal targeting sequence of about 48 amino acids. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the ALT proteins used endogenous fatty acyl–acyl carrier protein substrates to generate fatty acids that varied in chain length (C6–C18), degree of saturation (saturated and monounsaturated), and oxidation state (fully reduced and β-ketofatty acids). Despite their high amino acid sequence identities, each enzyme produced a different profile of lipids in E. coli. The biological roles of these proteins are unknown, but they potentially generate volatile lipid metabolites that have previously not been reported in Arabidopsis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

Acyl-lipid thioesterase1–4 from Arabidopsis thaliana form a novel family of fatty acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterases with divergent expression patterns and substrate specificities

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/acyl-lipid-thioesterase1-4-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-form-a-novel-xTPTaNqguB
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Pathology
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11103-013-0151-z
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hydrolysis of fatty acyl thioester bonds by thioesterases to produce free fatty acids is important for dictating the diversity of lipid metabolites produced in plants. We have characterized a four-member family of fatty acyl thioesterases from Arabidopsis thaliana, which we have called acyl-lipid thioesterase1 (ALT1), ALT2, ALT3, and ALT4. The ALTs belong to the Hotdog fold superfamily of thioesterases. ALT-like genes are present in diverse plant taxa, including dicots, monocots, lycophytes, and microalgae. The four Arabidopsis ALT genes were found to have distinct gene expression profiles with respect to each other. ALT1 was expressed specifically in stem epidermal cells and flower petals. ALT2 was expressed specifically in root endodermal and peridermal cells as well as in stem lateral organ boundary cells. ALT3 was ubiquitously expressed in aerial and root tissues and at much higher levels than the other ALTs. ALT4 expression was restricted to anthers. All four proteins were localized in plastids via an N-terminal targeting sequence of about 48 amino acids. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the ALT proteins used endogenous fatty acyl–acyl carrier protein substrates to generate fatty acids that varied in chain length (C6–C18), degree of saturation (saturated and monounsaturated), and oxidation state (fully reduced and β-ketofatty acids). Despite their high amino acid sequence identities, each enzyme produced a different profile of lipids in E. coli. The biological roles of these proteins are unknown, but they potentially generate volatile lipid metabolites that have previously not been reported in Arabidopsis.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Nov 10, 2013

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off