Activation of toll-like receptor signaling pathways leading to nitricoxide-mediated antiviral responses

Activation of toll-like receptor signaling pathways leading to nitricoxide-mediated antiviral... Toll-like receptors (TLRs), well-characterized pattern-recognizing receptors of the innate arm of the immune system, are vital in detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The TLR-PAMP interaction initiates an intracellular signaling cascade, predominantly culminating in upregulation of antiviral components, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). After activation, various TLR pathways can promote iNOS production via the myeloid differentiation primary response-88 (MyD-88) adapter protein. Subsequently, iNOS facilitates production of nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive and potent antiviral molecule that can inhibit replication of RNA and DNA viruses. Furthermore, NO can diffuse freely across cell membranes and elicit antiviral mechanisms in various ways, including direct and indirect damage to viral genomes. This review emphasizes current knowledge of NO-mediated antiviral responses elicited after activation of TLR signaling pathways. Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Activation of toll-like receptor signaling pathways leading to nitricoxide-mediated antiviral responses

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Springer Vienna
Copyright © 2016 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Biomedicine; Virology; Medical Microbiology; Infectious Diseases
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