ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2011, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 914–920. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © V.N. Popov, A.T. Eprintsev, E.V. Maltseva, 2011, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2011, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 758–765.
Plants respond to cold stress by reorganizing meta
bolic and physiological processes for adaptation to
new conditions. During this process, cells use more
energy and the respiration rate increases .
Previously, it has been shown that, in mitochondria
from arabidopsis leaves , cucumber seedlings ,
and cauliflower fruit , cold treatment stimulated
cyanideinsensitive respiration due to the induction of
alternative oxidase (AO). Recent reports on gene expres
sion patterns in young wheat seedlings showed simulta
neous expression of the genes for AO, MnSOD, and a
number of other enzymes in plants grown at
days. At the above conditions, the activities of the genes
for some subunits of the complex I were reduced. Ear
lier we have proposed that AO has to be coexpressed
with rotenoneinsensitive NADPHdehydrogenases,
and in both systems, ROS possibly act as second mes
sengers . Wagner showed that
may induce the
AO gene expression in plant tissues . The AO syn
thesis was also activated when plants and yeast were
grown in the presence of antimycin A with superoxide
radical being a second messenger .
One has to note that some damage from the cold
stress results specifically from ROS produced by the
cell and causing damage at the cellular and subcellular
levels . Hydrogen peroxide is sufficiently stable,
easily diffuses across the cellular membranes, and is an
oxidative stress inducer in plant cells. The rate of ROS
production increases when ubiquinone is reduced in
the presence of antimycin A .
The higher membrane potential and longer
ubisemiquinone lifetime stimulate mitochondrial
ROS production . Vianello et al.  reported the
involvement of the ATP/ADP antiporter in fatty acid
induced uncoupling in mitochondria of pea stems and
sunflower hypocotyls as well. Similar involvement of
the ATP/ADP antiporter in uncoupling was shown in
potato tuber mitochondria . On the other hand,
Vercesi et al.  detected the UCPlike mitochon
drial protein in potato tissues. It was named PUMP.
UCPlike proteins were also identified in mitochon
dria of other plants (arabidopsis, tomato, etc.) .
Uncoupling at low temperatures was proposed to be an
adaptive mechanism both stimulating thermogenesis
and lowering the membrane potential and, conse
quently, the ROS production rate .
Accordingly, our goal was to measure changes in
activities of some oxidative metabolism enzymes at
low temperatures (
), as well as the content of
mRNA of the genes for proteins involved in alternative
and uncoupled respiration in tomato seedlings and
possible ROS involvement in the regulation of these
genes in callus culture.
Activation of Genes Encoding Mitochondrial Proteins Involved
in Alternative and Uncoupled Respiration of Tomato Plants Treated
with Low Temperature and Reactive Oxygen Species
V. N. Popov, A. T. Eprintsev, and E. V. Maltseva
Plant Biochemistry and Physiology Department, Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl. 1, Voronezh, 394006 Russia;
fax:7 (4732) 208755, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received October 18, 2010
—Using Realtime PCR, the regulation of gene expression for proteins involved in alternative and
uncoupled respiration in tomato (
Mill.) seedlings and cell culture was studied. The
temperature of 4
C activated transcription of these genes. The effect of low temperature on the activities of a
number of enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of seedlings and cultivated cells was detected by spec
trophotometric methods. When oxidative stress in tomato cell culture was created by treatments with hydro
gen peroxide and antimycin A, it was established that the mRNA levels of the alternative oxidase, the uncou
pling protein, and the ATP/ADP antiporter were controlled by ROS, and this may be the mechanism of
“free” oxidation induction during cold stress adaptation.
Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum
, gene expression, alternative respiratory pathways, reactive oxygen spe
cies, antimycin A, hydrogen peroxide.
: AO—alternative oxidase; BA—benzyladenine;
MDH—malate dehydrogenase; MS—Murashige and Skoog
nutrient medium; NBT—nitro blue tetrazolium.