Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 2, pp. 307−311.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
A.B. Shishmakov, S.V. Erankin, Yu.V. Mikushina, O.V. Koryakova, M.S. Valova, L.A. Petrov, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 2, pp. 308−312.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Activated Carbon and Carbon–Oxide Composite Materials
Derived from Powdered Cellulose
A. B. Shishmakov, S. V. Erankin, Yu. V. Mikushina, O. V. Koryakova,
M. S. Valova, and L. A. Petrov
Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Received May 22, 2009
Abstract—Activated carbons were prepared by high-temperature steam activation of carbonized samples of
powdered cellulose and composite cellulose–inorganic materials based on it. The dependences of the yield of
the material and in its physicochemical characteristics on the initial formula of the composite were found. The
sorption activity of the carbons toward hydroquinone was determined, and the model reaction of hydrogen peroxide
decomposition in their presence was performed.
Porous carbon materials ﬁ nd growing use in various
branches of science and engineering as catalyst supports,
enterosorbents, hemosorbents, and adsorbents for
chromatography [1–7]. The properties of such materials
are determined by speciﬁ c features of the initial raw
material and additives used.
The goal of this study was to prepare activated carbons
and carbon–oxide composites from a nontraditional
raw material, powdered cellulose, and to examine the
physicochemical properties of the materials obtained.
As the oxide component of the composites we used
silicon, titanium, and zirconium dioxides.
Powdered cellulose (PC) was prepared by hydrolysis
of kraft pulp from the Baikal Pulp-and-Paper Combine
[TU (Technical Speciﬁ cation) OP 13-027 94 88-08–91)
in 2.5 N HCl at 100°C. The hydrolysis was performed
for 2 h. The resulting product was washed on the ﬁ lter
with distilled water to neutral pH value of the aqueous
extract and then was dried at 100°C. Powdered cellulose
was squeezed on a vacuum ﬁ lter to 60 wt % moisture
content and pressed in granules 5 mm in diameter and
15 mm high. The granules were dried at 90°C to constant
To prepare PC–SiO
, PC granules were impregnated
with tetraethoxysilane (TES) to saturation. A PC–
TES sample was placed in a desiccator over 10%
aqueous ammonia and kept there at 20°C for the TES
sample was prepared as follows:
PC granules were impregnated with a 0.3 M aqueous
solution of ZrOCl
O (chemically pure grade). The
sample was dried at 90°C, placed in a desiccator over
10% aqueous ammonia, and kept there at 20°C for the
zirconium oxychloride hydrolysis.
To prepare PC–TiO
, PC granules were impregnated
with tetrabutoxytitanium (TBT) to saturation. The TBT
hydrolysis was performed with water vapor over water
bath for 3 h.
All the samples obtained after the hydrolysis were
dried at 90°C to constant weight.
The carbonization was performed for 2 h at 600°C
in a reactor equipped with a hydroseal. Heating was
performed at a rate of 2 deg min
. The yield of the
material after the carbonization (samples C, C–SiO
, and C–TiO
), based on the initial amount, was
30, 38, 46, and 45 wt %, respectively.
Activation of the material obtained after the
carbonization was performed at 850°C for 1 h at