Acrolein (Acr) was used as a selection agent to improve the glutathione (GSH) overproduction of the prototrophic strain W303-1b/FGPPT. After two rounds of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE), an unexpected result was obtained wherein identical GSH production was observed in the selected isolates. Then, a threshold selection mechanism of Acr-stressed adaption was clarified based on the formation of an Acr-GSH adduct, and a diffusion coefficient (0.36 ± 0.02 μmol·min−1·OD600 −1) was calculated. Metabolomic analysis was carried out to reveal the molecular bases that triggered GSH overproduction. The results indicated that all three precursors (glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly) and cysteine (Cys)) needed for GSH synthesis were at a relativity higher concentration in the evolved strain and that the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and cystathionine might promote Cys synthesis and then improve GSH production. In addition to GSH and Cys, it was observed that other non-protein thiols and molecules related to ATP generation were at obviously different levels. To divert the accumulated thiols to GSH biosynthesis, combinatorial strategies, including deletion of cystathionine β-lyase (STR3), overexpression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CYS3) and cystathionine β-synthase (CYS4), and reduction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) through up-regulation of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), were also investigated.
Scientific Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 14, 2018
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