Accelerated real-time cardiac MRI using iterative sparse SENSE
reconstruction: comparing performance in patients with sinus
rhythm and atrial fibrillation
Bradley D. Allen
Maria L. Carr
Michael O. Zenge
Mariappan S. Nadar
Jeremy D. Collins
James C. Carr
Received: 26 September 2017 /Revised: 12 December 2017 /Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published online: 30 January 2018
European Society of Radiology 2018
Objectives To compare accelerated real-time cardiac MRI (CMR) using sparse spatial and temporal undersampling and non-
linear iterative SENSE reconstruction (RT IS SENSE) with real-time CMR (RT) and segmented CMR (SEG) in a cohort that
included atrial fibrillation (AF) patients.
Methods We evaluated 27 subjects, including 11 AF patients, by acquiring steady-state free precession cine images covering the
left ventricle (LV) at 1.5 T with SEG (acceleration factor 2, TR 42 ms, 1.8 × 1.8 × 6 mm
), RT (acceleration factor 3, TR 62 ms,
), and RT IS SENSE (acceleration factor 9.9-12, TR 42 ms, 2.0 × 2.0 × 7 mm
). We performed quantitative LV
functional analysis in sinus rhythm (SR) patients and qualitatively scored image quality, noise and artefact using a 5-point Likert
scale in the complete cohort and AF and SR subgroups.
Results There was no difference between LV functional parameters between acquisitions in SR patients. RT IS SENSE short-axis
image quality was superior to SEG (4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 3.9 ± 1.1, p = 0.007) and RT (3.8 ± 0.4, p = 0.003). There was reduced artefact in
RT IS SENSE compared to SEG (4.4 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 1.2, p = 0.04), driven by arrhythmia performance. RT IS SENSE short-axis
image quality was superior to SEG (4.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.1 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) in the AF subgroup.
Conclusion Accelerated real-time CMR with iterative sparse SENSE provides excellent clinical performance, especially in
patients with AF.
• Iterative sparse SENSE significantly accelerates real-time cardiovascular MRI acquisitions.
• It provides excellent qualitative and quantitative performance in sinus rhythm patients.
• It outperforms standard segmented acquisitions in patients with atrial fibrillation.
• It improves the trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution in real-time imaging.
Keywords Cine MRI
Cardiac imaging techniques
Left ventricular function
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
(https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5283-0) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
* Bradley D. Allen
Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, 737 N. Michigan
Ave, Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Northshore University Health System, Evanston, IL, USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University,
Chicago, IL, USA
Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany
Siemens Healthineers, Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ, USA
MR Collaborations, Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc,
Malvern, PA, USA
European Radiology (2018) 28:3088–3096