REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
ABRASION RESISTANCE OF REFRACTORY CONCRETES AND LININGS
D. E. Denisov,
A. B. Zhidkov,
A. A. Garabadzhiu,
and M. E. Popova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 81 – 85, March, 2007.
Original article submitted December 13, 2006.
Results are provided for determination of the abrasion resistance of refractory concretes of different composi
tion according to the standard ASTM C-704. Principles are considered for constructing abrasion-resistant
linings in order to protect heating units in various branches of industry.
Refractory lining of heating units in different branches of
industry is subject to abrasive wear. The problem of protect
ing equipment from the action of high temperature and si-
multaneously abrasive wear of moving dust, granular, and
lump materials exists in ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
(the blast furnace process, coke-oven batteries, various roast-
ing and melting furnaces, etc.), in the cement industry, in
power engineering using solid fuel, in the oil processing,
petrochemical, and chemical industries (in various catalytic
processes), in rubbish incineration units, etc.
OOO Aliter-Aksi specializes in preparing refractory con-
cretes that exhibit high abrasion resistance using about
50 designated raw materials, producing about ten thousand
tons per year of refractory concrete mixtures and articles
up to 99%) with a very broad range of properties: ap
plication temperature up to 1800°C, apparent density from
0.4 to 3.1 g/cm
, ultimate strength in compression up to
250 MPa. During the last thirty years rRefractory concretes
have actively crowded out traditionally formed refractories
in different branches of industry. On the whole in developed
countries the volume of production of formed and unformed
refractories is approximately the same; in some branches
concretes are used more than formed articles. The advan
tages of concrete linings compared with those made of indi
vidual items are well known: the technological efficiency of
laying and assembly, absence of numerous joints, low labor
expenditure in laying, and the repair capacity of linings.
However, there are factors holding back the spread of con
crete linings: the necessity of maintaining a positive temper
ature during preparation of the concrete and performing
lining work, use of additional equipment (mixers, torcrete
guns, vibrators, pneumatic rams, etc.), use in the work of
qualified personnel, higher requirements for drying and the
first firing of the lining.
Presented in Table 1 and in Fig. 1 are the properties of
abrasion-resistant concretes produced by OOO Aliter-Aksi.
The abrasion resistance was determined according to the
standard ASTM C-704 in the research center of the firm
Causeway Steel Products Ltd (Great Britain) according to the
volume of the crater formed during action on a specimen of a
jet of silicon carbide powder. The smaller the crater volume,
the higher the concrete abrasion resistance. Abrasion resis-
tance less than 12 cm
is assumed to be very high, and less
than 6 cm
it is assumed to be extremely high.
Abrasion-resistant concretes produced by OOO Aliter-
Aksi may be broken down into three main groups:
· ALKOR is a mixture of dense aluminosilicate fillers
(from fireclay to corundum) with alumina or high-alumina
cement. The cement content is more than 15%. The technical
properties of ALKOR concretes are not very high, but for
many fields of application they are quite satisfactory;
· ALIT, ALKORIT are concretes containing more than
10% (ALIT) or 5% (ALKORIT) cement, i.e. less by a factor
of 2 – 5 than classical concretes. This is compensated by in
troduction into the composition of ultrafine powders,
plastifers, deflocculents, and setting and hardening regula
tors. The composition of these mixtures is complex and
balanced, and they consists of 8 – 13 components. There is
no weakening on heating, and they have high density,
strength, abrasion resistance, and resistance to a temperature
drop. The standard modification is intended for laying by
pouring with vibration;
· ALIRAM are concretes developed for laying by manual
tamping. Due to its more complex binder composition than
for low-cement concretes they exhibit exceptionally high
strength limits in compression (up to 250 MPa) and abrasion
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 1, 2007
1083-4877/07/4801-0004 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Aliter-Aksi Limited Liability Company (OOO), Russia.