ISSN 10623604, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 2013, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 326–335. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2013.
Original Russian Text © A.A. Makhrov, M.V. Ponomareva, O.V. Khaimina, V.E. Gilepp, O.V. Efimova, T.A. Nechaeva, T.I. Vasilenkova, 2013, published in Ontogenez, 2013, Vol. 44,
No. 6, pp. 423–433.
In recent decades, the studies on ecological forms
(life strategy) have greatly contributed to understanding
of the evolution process. It appears that slight differ
ences in the growth rates of specimens can result in high
divergence of their ecology and morphology (Lebedev,
1967; Aleev, 1986; Mina, 1986; Roff, 1992; Stearns,
1992; Schluter, 2000; Dgebuadze, 2001; WestEber
hard, 2003; Mednikov, 2005). Fixation of such differ
ences at the genetic level can result in emergence of new
taxa, but the problem of stabilization of species charac
ters (Severtsov, 2008) needs further consideration.
Salmonidae are a good model object for the study of
evolution of life strategies (Hendry et al., 2004; Pavlov
and Savvaitova, 2008; Kuzishchin, 2010; Jonsson, B.
and Jonsson, N., 2011). In addition, Salmonidae are
key components in the ecosystems, and important
objects of commercial and recreational fishing. The
salmon aquaculture industry has been rapidly evolving.
The study of mechanisms of evolution of ecological
forms of these species is extremely important for preser
vation and restoration of the structure of natural and
artificially sustained populations and for control of the
growth and maturation of hatcheryreared fish.
Atlantic salmon is of interest as an example of reduc
tion of ecological plasticity compared to the ancestral
species brown trout
Makhrov, 2005). The species have four ecological
forms: anadromous and three landlocked forms—lake
river, resident lake, and resident river forms (Smirnov,
1979). But these forms differ in the number of popula
Most populations have an anadromous form, whose
males and females spend from one to several years in the
sea, and whose dwarf males remain and mature in the
rivers (Flemming, 1996). It should be mentioned that a
few dwarf males can survive after spawning, migrate to
the sea, and return to the spawning grounds as anadro
mous fish (Saunders et al., 1994).
Less frequent are populations represented by indi
viduals migrating not to the sea but to a large lake (lake
river form) and by dwarf males. Several such popula
tions are known in Europe. They are documented in
Ladoga, Onega, Segozero, Vygozero, Nyuk and Kuito
(Russia), Vénern (Sweden) and Saimaa (Finland) lakes
and in systems of the Otra and Nidelva rivers in Norway
(Smirnov, 1979; Berg, 1985). In North America, the
lakeriver form is more numerous; it numbers hundreds
of populations (Kendall, 1935; MacCrimmon and
Gots, 1979; Verspoor et al., 2007).
It should be mentioned that some of the abovemen
tioned populations are constituted by individuals that
Abnormal Development of Gonads of Dwarf Females
and Low Survival of Their Offspring as the Cause of Rarity
of Resident Populations of Atlantic Salmon (
A. A. Makhrov
, M. V. Ponomareva
, O. V. Khaimina
, V. E. Gilepp
O. V. Efimova
, T. A. Nechaeva
, and T. I. Vasilenkova
Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow, 119071 Russia
Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Malookhtinskii pr. 98, St. Petersburg, 195196 Russia
Vygskiy Fish Hatchery, Sosnovetz, Belomorsky raion, Karelia, 186530 Russia
Received April 28, 2013; in final form, June 13, 2013
—Fecundity and mass of egg, as well as survival of offspring, of hatcheryreared small (less than 406 g)
females of Atlantic salmon are determined. The absolute fecundity and mass of egg of artificially reared fish
are sufficiently less than that of anadromous spawners. Small females are characterized by delayed spawning;
histological analysis has demonstrated significant asynchrony in oocyte development of some specimens.
Survival of offspring of dwarf females at the early stages of development is lower than of anadromous females.
Our results agree completely with the published data. It is suggested that dwarf females are not able to with
stand intraspecific and interspecific competition because of low reproductive ability. This explains rarity of
natural populations of dwarf (landlocked) forms of Atlantic salmon.
: gonads, experiment, fish, eggs, histological analysis
ONTOGENESIS AND ECOLOGY