ISSN 1062-3604, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 2006, Vol. 37, No. 3, p. 193. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006. Original Russian Text © L.V. Beloussov, 2006, published in Ontogenez, 2006, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 234–235. BOOK REVIEW A.V. Ereskovsky Sravnitel’naya embryologiya gubok (Porifera) (Comparative Embryology of Sponges (Porifera)), St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University, 2005 DOI: 10.1134/S1062360406030088 Type Porifera always was and remains one of the As a result, the sponges possess almost a complete most surprising and attractive groups of invertebrates repertoire of morphogenetic movements used by all above ranking Metazoa. This conclusion is extremely for embryological studies. Discussions about its place important. Apparently, we have to cast aside traditional in phylogeny and taxonomy, mechanisms of its devel- concepts on gradual development of different types of opment, and cell differentiation last for many years. gastrulation in the course of evolution of Metazoa: from The novel cytological and molecular-biological data unorganized immigration and to invagination as the caused a new wave of interest to these organisms. The most perfect way, since these processes were present book by A.V. Ereskovsky, one of leading specialists in even in the most primitive Metazoa. Speciﬁcally, the spongiology, substantiates this interest. This book pro- essential and sufﬁcient condition of invagination, as the vides not only comprehensive data on embryology of author mentions, may be apicobasal polarization of different groups of Porifera, but also proposes general- cells, establishment of specialized contacts between izations, which allow systematization of the very com- them, and polar laying of extracellular matrix, and all plicated and diverse ﬁeld and experimental materials. these processes are already present in sponges. In this respect, the author notes, quite rightly, that the trends to In the beginning of the book, the development of invagination are expressed not only during early devel- sponges is considered in a systematic order, by classes. opment, but also during formation of ﬂagellar cham- In this section, I would like to note new data on devel- bers of syconoid and leuconoid types. It is interesting opment of the so far little studied class Hyalospongia whether the invaginational processes in sponges are (discovery of trichimella larva), as well as detailed accompanied (and preceded) by the appearance of the description of development of sponges of the class Hal- same patterns of mechanical tensions in cell layers as in isarcida compiled mostly on the basis of the original the above ranking groups of animals, starting from Cni- studies carried by the author and his students. daria. This should take place in the presence of polar- ized cell contacts and extracellular matrix. But for most readers, who are not spongiologists, the second part of the book is the most interesting, If the sponges possessed almost the entire repertoire where theoretical aspects of the embryology of sponges of morphogenetic movements, which was the further are considered. The author proposed an original typiza- evolution of animal development? Apparently, it com- tion of the development of sponges based on the analy- prised an increasingly perfect and ﬁne mutual tuning of morphogenetic movements and cell differentiation with sis of his own and published data. The author distin- the ever increasing diversity and stabilization of the lat- guishes seven types of development, six of which were ter. Although such tuning is already present in the called after the types of larvae, amphiblastula, calci- sponges (some cell differentiations are realized accord- blastula, trtichimella, dispherula, parenchymula, and ing to the “position,” i.e. in direct relation to the preced- cinctoblastula, and the seventh is characterized by ing morphogenesis), cytodifferentiation in this group is direct development. This does not mean, however, that much less related to morphogenesis and I much more each type of development corresponds to its own spe- labile than in the above ranking groups. ciﬁc type of cleavage. The author distinguished four such types: tabular palintomy and polyaxial, radial, and The book by A.V. Ereskovsky demonstrates once chaotic cleavage. Intermediate developmental stages more a high level of the Petersburg school of compara- can also have overlapping morphology. This is true spe- tive embryologists, our truly national asset. It should be ciﬁcally to the ways of formation of inner cell mass: in considered its advantage that it asks more new ques- tions than gives ready answers. addition to the long known excurvation in the case of Calcaronea and immigration (uni- and multipolar), the author distinguishes different types of delamination, multipolar emigration, and, ﬁnally, distinct invagina- L.V. Beloussov tion (in the case of Halisarcida). e-mail: email@example.com
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: May 18, 2006
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