Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 8, pp. 1385−1389.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
I.A. Borisova, V.N. Strel’nikov, V.N. Antsiferov, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 8, pp. 1279−1283.
A Study of Properties of Porous Carbon Based
on Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin with Carbohydrates
I. A. Borisova
, V. N. Strel’nikov
, and V. N. Antsiferov
Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
Research Center for Powder Materials Sciences, State Educational Enterprise for Higher Professional Education,
Perm State Technical University, Perm, Russia
Received April 5, 2010
Abstract—Structure and some physical properties of nanoporous carbon powders produced by pyrolysis of
mixtures of phenol-formaldehyde resin with saccharose or cellulose were studied.
Porous carbon materials are distinguished from
other materials by the wide diversity of raw material
sources, richness of possible morphologies, and range of
application as adsorbents, coagulants, ion exchangers,
materials for porous and nonporous electrodes, plastic
ﬁ llers, rubber articles, and other composites. Because
of the unique combination of electrical conductivity,
chemical inertness, and large speciﬁ c area, carbon
materials are successfully used in new-generation energy
storage devices, electric-double-layer capacitors or
supercapacitors. The speciﬁ c power of supercapacitors
is two orders of magnitude higher than that of ordinary
electrochemical capacitors . At present, the mass use
of supercapacitors is hindered by the high cost of the
electrode components. Therefore, development of a
technology of low-cost activated carbons with improved
characteristics is a topical task.
In this study, we examine processes in which the
porous structure of an activated carbon is formed from
formulations composed of phenol-formaldehyde resin
(PFR) and a carbohydrate. We analyze changes in
the properties of powdered carbon materials: speciﬁ c
surface area, density, porosity, electrical resistance, and
structural characteristics in the course of activation.
As raw materials for synthesis of nanoporous carbon
powders served formulations based on PFR (BZh-
3 brand) with a low-molecular-mass carbohydrate,
saccharose, or a macromolecular polymer, cellulose.
From the chemical standpoint, these compounds only
differ in the degree of polymerization and can be
represented by a general formula (–C
where n = 2 for saccharose and (1–15) × 10
When mixing the formulations, we used a UZDN-A
ultrasonic generator to achieve a uniform distribution
of the solid component. The prepared mixtures were
thermally treated: cured at 120°C and carbonized at
600°C. Further, the materials were milled and the
resulting powders were oxidized (activated) in humid
nitrogen at a temperature of 700°C. The formulation
compositions are listed in the table.
The speciﬁ c surface area S
of the powders was
determined with a GKh-1 gas meter. The porous
structure of the activated carbon materials was analyzed
with a Sorbtomatic 1800 instrument by measuring
nitrogen adsorption isotherms.
X-ray diffraction analyses were made using a
DRON-3 diffractometer with monochromatized Co
radiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns obtained were
used to calculate the interplanar spacing d
, the size
of packets of coherent layers of carbon planes along
the c axis of the graphite lattice, and the amount A of
the amorphous phase [2, 3]. The electrical resistance of
powdered carbonized and activated carbon formulations