Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. 846−853.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
E.V. Ovchinnikova, V.A. Chumachenko, N.V. Vernikovskaya, V.N. Kashkin, T.V. Andrushkevich, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. 794−800.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
A Study of Nicotinic Acid Synthesis on a Pilot Installation
and Its Simulation
E. V. Ovchinnikova, V. A. Chumachenko, N. V. Vernikovskaya,
V. N. Kashkin, and T. V. Andrushkevich
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Received August 26, 2009
Abstract—Technological process parameters of the nicotinic acid synthesis by oxidation of β-picoline on
a vanadium-titanium catalyst in a unit tube of a pilot installation were determined: conversion of β-picoline, yield
and selectivity for products, and parametric sensitivity of the “hot point” temperature to variation of parameters at
the reactor inlet. A mathematical simulation of the process was carried using the model of heat-and-mass transfer
in a bed of a tubular reactor and the kinetic model of oxidation of β-picoline.
Nicotinic acid (C
NCOOH, pyridine carboxylic
acid, niacin, NA) belongs to B-group vitamins and is
widely used in medicine, vitamin addition in food
industry, premixes in cattle raising, and growth
controlling agent in agriculture .
Nicotinic acid is not manufactured in Russia. Abroad,
NA is produced either by liquid-phase oxidation of
, 3-methyl pyridine, βP) with
potassium permanganate or with nitric or sulfuric acid,
or by gas-phase ammonolysis of βP in the presence
of a vanadium catalyst, followed by hydrolysis of
nicotinamide and 3-pyridine nitrile (C
. These multistage methods are technologically
complicated and produce a large amount of toxic liquid
wastes and gases.
A method for synthesis of NA by single-stage
heterogeneous-catalytic oxidation of βP with atmo-
spheric oxygen on a vanadium-titanium oxide catalyst
has been developed at the Institute of Catalysis, Siberian
Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences . The reaction
occurs at temperatures of 270–295°C with a NA yield of
about 80 vol % [4–6].
Previously, detailed studies have been carried out of
the reaction kinetics [4–6] and mechanism [7, 8] and
a kinetic model of the reaction on catalyst grains of
industrial granulation has been developed and the model
parameters have been determined .
An important stage in the development of
an industrial catalyst are pilot tests intended to conﬁ rm
the kinetic model and analyze the effect of technological
parameters (linear ﬂ ow velocity U, cooling agent
, and βP concentration) on the process
parameters (yield and selectivity for NA and “hot point”
). The pilot installation designed by the
authors simulated the process conditions in an element
of the tubular reactor: unit tube with a catalyst.
This communication presents the results obtained
in a study of the synthesis of nicotinic acid on a pilot
installation and compares these data with those
calculated for a unit tube with a ﬁ xed catalyst bed.
To perform pilot tests, a pilot batch of a V
catalyst was fabricated in the form of rings (outer
diameter 4 mm, wall thickness 1 mm, length 4 mm). The
catalyst was produced by mixing commercial titanium
dioxide of the anatase modiﬁ cation with vanadyl
oxalate, spray drying of the resulting suspension,
granulation, and calcination in air at 500°C. The catalyst
had a speciﬁ c surface area of 14 m
The pilot installation comprised three basic units:
unit for preparation and delivery of the reaction
mixture, reactor unit, and product recovery unit. The