By splitting the spatial effects into building and neighborhood effects, this paper develops a two order spatio-temporal autoregressive model to deal with both the spatio-temporal autocorrelations and the heteroscedasticity problem arising from the nature of multi-unit residential real estate data. The empirical results based on 54,282 condominium transactions in Singapore between 1990 and 1999 show that in the multi-unit residential market, a two order spatio-temporal autoregressive model incorporates more spatial information into the model, thus outperforming the models originally developed in the market for single-family homes. This implies that the specification of a spatio-temporal model should consider the physical market structure as it affects the spatial process. It is found that the Bayesian estimation method can produce more robust coefficients by efficiently detecting and correcting heteroscedasticity, indicating that the Bayesian estimation method is more suitable for estimating a real estate hedonic model than the conventional OLS estimation. It is also found that there is a trade off between the heteroscedastic robustness and the incorporation of spatial information into the model estimation. The model is then used to construct building-specific price indices. The results show that the price indices for different condominiums and the buildings within a condominium do behave differently, especially when compared with the aggregate market indices.
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 17, 2005
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